Reforestation challenges in Southeast Europe facing climate change

  • Vladan Ivetić University of Belgrade - Faculty of Forestry https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0587-1422
  • Jovana Devetaković University of Belgrade - Faculty of Forestry
Keywords: Climate Change, Assisted Migration, Seedling Quality, Planting, Seedling Protection, Seedling Field Performance

Abstract

Projections of the regional climate model for Southeast Europe generally predict an increasing of temperature and a decrease in precipitation, with some local variations. Higher frequency of extreme weather events and increased flooding can also be expected. This climate change will, among other things, result in changes in habitats and species distribution, and a decrease in biodiversity. In most cases, forest ecosystems will be unable to adapt fast enough to keep pace with changes in climate. Extreme weather events and low precipitation during the growing season will cause high mortality of seedlings after planting. New forests will face the whole range of these changes because of the long lifetime of trees. Reforestation programs must take projections of climate change into consideration. In the long term, new guidelines for site-species matching, provenance selection, and genetic diversity need to be adopted. In the short term, site preparation, planting techniques, and post planting protection need to be improved. In addition, seedling quality (morphological, physiological, and genetic) and planting time need to be specific for each site. New site preparation, planting, and post-planting protection methods are useful tools for short term success measured in seedling survival and initial growth. Seedling quality is essential for short and long term success. Different strategies, such as assisted migration and increased genetic diversity of planting material, can provide better chances for long term success measured in growth, fitness, and capability to produce the next, better adapted generation.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aghai MM, Pinto JR, Davis AS (2014) Container volume and growing density influence western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedling development during nursery culture and establishment. New Forest 45: 199-213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-013-9402-8

Aguade D, Poyatos R, Rosas T, Martinez-Vilalta J (2015) Comparative drought responses of Quercus ilex L. and Pinus sylvestris L. in a montane forest undergoing a vegetation shift. Forests 6: 2505-2529. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/f6082505

Aitken SN, Yeaman S, Holliday JA, Wang T, Curtis-McLane S (2008) Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climatic changes outcomes for tree populations. Evol Appl 1: 95-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2007.00013.x

Ameztegui A, Coll L, Messier C (2015) Modelling the effect of climate-induced changes in recruitment and juvenile growth on mixed-forest dynamics: The case of montane-subalpine Pyrenean ecotones. Ecological Modelling 313: 84-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2015.06.029

Andivia E, Fernández M, Vázquez-Piqué J (2014) Assessing the effect of late-season fertilization on Holm oak plant quality: Insights from morpho-nutritional characterizations and water relations parameters. New Forest 45: 149-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-013-9397-1

Andrejević M (1959) Are gradoni new in our country? [In Serbian: Да ли Ñу градони новина за нашу земљу?]. Å umarstvo 5-6: 268-272.

Babu GA, Shea JP, Byung-Taek O (2014) Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 promotes Pinus sylvestris reforestation of lead-contaminated mine tailing sites. Sci Total Environ 476-477: 561–567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.119

Bai S-L, Li G-L, Liu Y, Dumroese RK, Lv R-H (2009) Ostryopsis davidiana seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi facilitate formation of mycorrhizae on Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings. Mycorrhiza 19: 425–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-009-0245-2

Balneaves J, Menzies M, Hong S (1996) Establishment practices can improve longer – term growth of Pinus radiata on a dry-land hill forest. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 26: 370-379.

Banković S, Medarević M, Pantić D, Petrović N, Šljukić B, Obradović S (2009) The growing stock of the Republic of Serbia - state and problems. Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry 100: 7-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/GSF0900007B

Barberá GG, Martínez-Fernández F, Ãlvarez-Rogel J, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (2005) Short- and intermediate-term effects of site and plant preparation techniques on reforestation of a Mediterranean semiarid ecosystem with Pinus halepensis Mill. New Forest 29 (2): 177-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-005-0248-6

Barnett JP, Brissette JC (1986) Producing southern pine seedlings in containers. New Orleans (LA): USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station. General Technical Report SO-59. 71 p.

Barnett JP, McGilvray JM (1993) Performance of container and bareroot loblolly pine seedlings on bottomlands in South Carolina. South J Appl F 17: 80-83.

Bauman JM, Keiffer CH, Hiremath S (2012) Facilitation of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedling establishment by Pinus virginiana in mine reclamation. International Journal of Ecology 2012: 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/257326

Bayley AD, Kietzka JW (1997) Stock quality and field performance of Pinus patula seedlings produced under two nursery growing regimes during seven different nursery production periods. New Forest 13: 341-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006550728250

Beaulieu J, Rainville A (2005) Adaptation to climate change: genetic variation is both a short- and a long-term solution. Forest Chron 81: 704-709. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc81704-5

Bellot J, Ortiz De Urbina JM, Bonet A, Sánchez JR (2002) The effects of tree shelters on the growth of Quercus coccifera L. seedlings in a semiarid environment. Forestry 75: 89-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/forestry/75.1.89

Blanco-García A, Sáenz-Romero C, Martorell C, Alvarado-Sosa P, Lindig-Cisneros R (2011) Nurse-plant and mulching effects on three conifer species in a Mexican temperate forest. Ecol Eng 37: 994-98. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.01.012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.01.012

Boateng OJ, Heineman LJ, Bedford L, Harper JG, Linnell Nemec FA (2009) Long-term effects of site preparation and postplanting vegetation control on Picea glauca survival, growth and predicted yield in boreal British Columbia. Scand J Forest Res 24:111-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827580902759685

Bodin J, Badeau V, Bruno E, Cluzeau C, Moisselin J-M, Walther G-R, Dupouey J-L (2013) Shifts of forest species along an elevational gradient in Southeast France: Climate change or stand maturation? J Veg Sci 24: 269-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2012.01456.x

Bower AD, St Clair JB, Erickson V (2014) Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants. Ecol Appl 24: 913-919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-0285.1

Boyer JN, South DB (1987) Excessive seedling height, high shoot-to-root ratio and benomyl dip reduce survival of stored loblolly pine seedlings. Tree Planters' Notes 37: 19-21.

Bradley FR (1962) Survival of planted Douglas-fir seedlings on severe sites using the paper sheet mulch planting method. Accessed at: http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/10023. Jan 14th 2016.

Breed MF, Stead MG, Ottewell KM, Gardner MG, Lowe AJ (2012) Which provenance and where? Seed sourcing strategies for revegetation in a changing environment. Conserv Genet 14: 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10592-012-0425-z

Broadhurst LM, Lowe A, Coates DJ, Cunningham SA, McDonald M, Vesk PA, Yates C (2008) Seed supply for broadscale restoration: maximizing evolutionary potential. Evol Appl 1: 587-597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2008.00045.x

Bryan DL, Arnold MA, Volder A, Watson WT, Lombardini L, Sloan JJ, Valdez-Aguilar LA, Cartmill AD (2010) Transplant season, irrigation, and planting depth effects on landscape establishment of bald cypress and sycamore. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry 36: 57-65.

Burdett AN (1990) Physiological processes in plantation establishment and the development of speciï¬cations for forest planting stock. Can J Forest Res 20: 415-427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x90-059

Buse LJ, Day RJ (1989) Conditioning three boreal conifers by root pruning and wrenching. Tree Planters' Notes 40: 33-39.

Calama R, Puértolas J, Manso R, Pardos M (2015) Defining the optimal regeneration niche for Pinus Pinea L. through physiology-based models for seedling survival and carbon assimilation. Trees 29(6): 1761–1771. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-015-1257-5

Carlson WC (1986) Root system considerations in the quality of loblolly pine seedlings. Sout J Appl For 10: 87-92.

Carneiro JGD, Barroso DG, Soares LMD (2007) Growth of bare root Pinus taeda L. seedlings cultivated under five densities in nursery. Sci Agr 64: 23-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162007000100004

Castro J, Zamora R, Hódar JA, Gómez JM (2002) Use of shrubs as nurse plants: a new technique for reforestation in Mediterranean mountains. Restor Ecol 10: 297-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100X.2002.01022.x

Ceacero CJ, Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Díaz-Hernández JL, Del Campo AD (2014) Is tree shelter protection an effective complement to weed competition management in improving the morphophysiological response of holm oak planted seedlings? iForest 7: 289-299.

Chaar H, Mechergui T, Khouaja A, Abid H (2008) Effects of treeshelters and polyethylene mulch sheets on survival and growth of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) seedlings planted in northwestern Tunisia. Forest Ecol Manag 256: 722-731. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.05.027

Chakraborty D, Wang T, Andre K, Konnert M, Lexer MJ, Matulla C, Schueler S (2015) Selecting populations for non-analogous climate conditions using universal response functions: The case of Douglas-fir in central Europe. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0136357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136357

Chanway CP (1997) Inoculation of tree roots with plant growth promoting soil bacteria: An emerging technology for reforestation. For Sci 43: 99-112.

Chanway CP, Holl FB (1991) Biomass increase and associative nitrogen fixation of mycorrhizal Pinus contorta seedlings inoculated with a plant growth promoting Bacillus Strain. Can J Bot 69: 507-511. doi:10.1139/b91-069. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/b91-069

Chanway CP, Holl FB (1993) First year field performance of Spruce seedlings inoculated with plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria. Can J Microbiol 39: 1084-1088. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/m93-164

Chanway CP, Holl FB (1994) Growth of outplanted Lodgepole pine seedlings one year after inoculation with plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria. For Sci 40: 238-246.

Chanway CP, Shishido M, Nairn J, Jungwirth S, Markham J, Xiao G, Holl FB (2000) Endophytic colonization and field responses of hybrid Spruce seedlings after inoculation with plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria. Forest Ecol Manage 133: 81-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00300-X

Chavasse CGR (1977) The significance of planting height as an indicator of subsequent seedling growth. New Zeal J Forest 22: 283-296.

Cheddadi R, Birks HJB, Tarroso P, Liepelt S, Gömöry D, Dullinger S, Meier ES, Hülber K, Maiorano L, Laborde H (2014) Revisiting tree-migration rates:Abies alba (Mill.), a case study. Veg Hist Archaeobot 23: 113-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00334-013-0404-4

Chirino E, Vilagrosa A, Vallejo VR (2011) Using hydrogel and clay to improve the water status of seedlings for dryland restoration. Plant Soil 344: 99-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-0730-1

Chirino E, Vilagrosa A, Hernández E, Matos A, Vallejo V (2008) Effects of a deep container on morpho-functional characteristics and root colonization in Quercus suber L. seedlings for reforestation in Mediterranean climate. Forest Ecol Manag 256: 779-785. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.05.035

Chirino E, Vilagrosa A, Cortina J, Valdecantos A, Fuentes D, Trubat R, Luis VC, Puertolas J, Bautista S, Baeza J, Penuelas JL, Vallejo VR (2009) Ecological restoration in degraded drylands: the need to improve the seedling quality and site conditions in the field. In: Grossberg SP (ed), Forest management, Nova Publisher, New York, pp 85-158.

Coello-Gomez J, Fuentes-Boix C, Pique M (2015) Innovative soil conditioning and mulching techniques for forest restoration in Mediterranean conditions. In: Ivetić V, Stanković D (eds) Proceedings: International conference Reforestation Challenges, 03-06 June 2015, Belgrade, Serbia, pp 201-210.

Corlett RT, Westcott DA (2013) Will plant movements keep up with climate change? Trends Ecol Evol 28: 482-488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.04.003

Cogliastro A, Gagnon D, Bouchard A (1997) Is site preparation necessary for bur oak receiving post-planting weed control? Ann For Sci 54:107-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:19970108

Critchley W, Siegert K (1991) Water Harvesting – A manual for the design and construction of water harvesting schemes for plant production. FAO, Rome.

Cuesta B, Villar-Salvador P, Puértolas J, Jacobs DF, Rey Benayas JM (2010) Why do large, nitrogen rich seedlings better resist stressful transplanting conditions? A physiological analysis in two functionally contrasting Mediterranean forest species. Forest Ecol Manag 260: 71-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.04.002

Curiel-Esparza J, Gonzalez-Utrillas N, Canto-Perello J, Martin-Utrillas M (2015) Integrating climate change criteria in reforestation projects using a hybrid decision-support system. Environ Res Lett 10: 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/9/094022

Davis AS, Jacobs DF (2005) Quantifying root system quality of nursery seedlings and relationship to outplanting performance. New Forest 30: 295-311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-005-7480-y

Deans JD, Lundberg C, Cannell MGR, Murray MB, Sheppard LJ (1990) Root system fibrosity of Sitka spruce transplants: Relationship with root growth potential. Forestry 63: 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/forestry/63.1.1-a

Del Campo DA, Navarro MR, Aguilella A, González E (2006) Effect of tree shelter design on water condensation and run-off and its potential benefit for reforestation establishment in semiarid climates. Forest Ecol Manag 235: 107-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.08.003

Delzon S, Urli M, Samalens JC, Lamy JB, Lischke H, Sin F, Zimmermann EN, Annabel JP (2013) Field evidence of colonisation by Holm oak, at the northern margin of its distribution range, during the anthropocene period. PLoS ONE 8(11): e80443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080443

Devine DW, Harrington AC (2008) Influence of four tree shelter types on microclimate and seedling performance of Oregon white oak and western redcedar. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-576. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 35 p.

Dey DC, Parker WC (1997): Morphological indicators of stock quality and field performance of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling underplanted in a central Ontario shelterwood. New Forest 14: 145-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006577201244

Diku A (2011) The impact of climate change on food production/selected crop yields in Albania. In: Ivanyi Z (ed) The impacts of climate change on food production in the Western Balkan Region, Report Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe. pp 1-23.

Dominguez JA, Martin A, Anriquez A, Albanesi A (2012) The combined effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Tuber melanosporum on the quality of Pinus halepensis seedlings. Mycorrhiza 22:429-436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-011-0420-0

Domínguez JA, Selva J, Rodríguez JA, Saiz de Ome-aca JA (2006) The influence of mycorrhization with Tuber melanosporum in the afforestation of a Mediterranean site with Quercus Ilex and Quercus faginea. Forest Ecol Manag 231: 226-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.05.052

Dreesen DR, Fenchel GA (2010) Deep planting techniques to establish riparian vegetation in arid and semiarid regions. Native Plants Journal 11(1): 15-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2979/NPJ.2010.11.1.15

Dubois MR, Chapplka AH, Robbinson E, Somers G, Baker K (2000) Tree shelters and weed control: effects on protection, survival and growth of Cherrybark oak seedlings planted on a cutover site. New Forest 20: 105-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006704016209

Dumroese RK, Williams MI, Stanturf JA, St Clair JB (2015) Considerations for restoring temperate forests of tomorrow: forest restoration, assisted migration, and bioengineering. New Forest 46: 947-964. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-015-9504-6

Dumroese RK, Landis TD, Pinto JR, Haase DL, Wilkinson KW, Davis AS (2016) Meeting Forest Restoration Challenges: Using the Target Plant Concept. Reforesta 1: 37-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.21750/REFOR.1.03.3

Du-abeitia M, RodrıÌguez N, Salcedo I, Sarrionandia E (2004) Field mycorrhization and its influence on the establishment and development of the seedlings in a broadleaf plantation in the Basque country. Forest Ecol Manag 195: 129-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.02.038

Dunstan WA, Malajczuk N, Dell B (1998) Effects of bacteria on mycorrhizal development and growth of container grown Eucalyptus diversicolor F. Muell. seedlings. Plant Soil 201: 241-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004329626763

Duponnois R, Garbaye J (1991) Effect of dual inoculation of Douglas fir with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata and mycorrhization helper bacteria (MHB) in two bare-root forest nurseries. Plant Soil 138: 169-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00012243

Duponnois R, Ouahmane L, Kane A, Thioulouse J, Hafidi M, Boumezzough A, Prin Y, Baudoin E, Galiana A, Dreyfus B (2011) Nurse shrubs increased the early growth of cupressus seedlings by enhancing belowground mutualism and soil microbial activity. Soil Biol Biochem 43: 2160-2168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.06.020

Duryea ML (1984) Nursery cultural practices: Impacts on seedling quality. In: Duryea ML, Landis TD (eds) Forest nursery manual: Production of bareroot seedlings, Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague/Boston/Lancaster, The Netherlands. pp 143-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6110-4_15

Endo M, Yamamura Y, Tanaka A, Nakano T, Yasuda T (2008) Nurse-plant effects of a dwarf shrub on the establishment of tree seedlings in a volcanic desert on Mt. Fuji, Central Japan. Arc Antarct Alp Res 40: 335–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1657/1523-0430(07-013)[ENDO]2.0.CO;2

Enebak SA, Wei G, Kloepper JW (1998) Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on Loblolly and Slash pine seedlings. For Sci 44: 139-144.

Ehrentraut G, Branter K (1990) Vegetation management by manual and mechanical means in Alberta boreal forests, For Chron 66: 366-368.

FAO FRA (2015) Global forest resources assessment 2015 Desk reference. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome. 253 p.

Feurdean A, Bhagwat SA, Willis KJ, Birks HJB, Lischke H, Hickler T (2013) Tree migration-rates: Narrowing the gap between inferred post-glacial rates and projected rates. PLoS ONE 8(8): e71797. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071797

Flint LE, Childs SW (1987) Effect of shading, mulching and vegetation control on Douglas-fir seedling growth and soil water supply. Forest Ecol Manag 18: 189-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(87)90160-5

Forest Europe (2015) State of Europe's Forests. 314 p.

Franco AC, Nobel PS (1989) Effect of nurse plants on the microhabitat and growth of cacti. J Ecol 77: 870-886. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2260991

Gadow K, Kotze H (2014) Tree survival and maximum density of planted forests – Observations from South African spacing studies. Forest ecosystems 1: 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40663-014-0021-4

Gómez-Aparicio L, Zamora R, Gómez JM, Hódar JA, Castro J, Baraza E (2004) Applying plant facilitation to forest restoration: a meta-analysis of the use of shrubs as nurse plants. Ecol Appl 14: 1128-1138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/03-5084

Gould PJ, Harrington CA (2009) Root morphology and growth of bare-root seedlings of Oregon white oak. Tree Plant 53: 22-28.

Gray LK, Hamann A (2011) Strategies for reforestation under uncertain future climates: Guidelines for Alberta, Canada. PLoS ONE 6(8): e22977. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022977

Gray LK, Hamann A (2013) Tracking suitable habitat for tree populations under climate change in western North America. Climatic Change 117: 289-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-012-0548-8

Gray LK, Gylander T, Mbogga MS, Chen P, Hamann A (2011) Assisted migration to address climate change: Recommendations for aspen reforestation in western Canada. Ecol Appl 21: 1591-1603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/10-1054.1

Groninger WJ, Baer GS, Babassana DA, Allen HD (2004) Planted green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) and herbaceous vegetation responses to initial competition control during the first 3 years of afforestation. Forest Ecol Manag 189: 161-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2003.07.039

Grossnickle SC (2000) Ecophysiology of northern spruce species: the performance of planted seedlings. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 407 p.

Grossnickle SC (2005a) Seedling size and reforestation success. How big is big enough? In: Colombo SJ (Compiler), The thin green line: a symposium on the state-of-the-art in reforestation, Forest Research Information Paper 160, Ontario Forest Research Institute, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. pp 138–144.

Grossnickle SC (2005b) Importance of root growth in overcoming planting stress. New Forest 30: 273-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-004-8303-2

Grossnickle SC (2012) Why seedlings survive: Importance of plant attributes. New Forest 43: 711-738. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-012-9336-6

Grossnickle SC, Reid CPP (1982) The use of ectomycorrhizal conifer seedlings in the revegetation of a high-elevation mine site. Can J For Res 12: 354-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x82-051

Grossnickle SC, Reid CPP (1983) Ectomycorrhiza formation and root development patterns of conifer seedlings on a high-elevation mine site. Can J For Res 13: 1145-1158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x83-153

Grossnickle SC, Reid CPP (1984) Water relations of Engelmann spruce seedlings on a high-elevation mine site: an example of how reclamation techniques can alter microclimate and edaphic conditions. Reclam Reveg Res 3: 199-221.

Grossnickle SC, Folk RS (1993) Stock quality assessment: Forecasting survival or performance on a reforestation site. Tree Plant 44: 113-121.

Grossnickle SC, El-Kassaby YA (2016) Bareroot versus container stocktypes: a performance comparison. New Forest 47: 1-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-015-9476-6

Guarnaschelli AB, Prystupa P, Lemcoff JH (2006) Drought conditioning improves water status, stomatal conductance and survival of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata seedlings. Annals For Sci 63: 941-950. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:2006077

Guo Q, Ren H (2014) Productivity as related to diversity and age in planted versus natural forests. Global Ecol Biogeogr 23: 1461-1471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.12238

Hamann A, Gylander T, Chen P (2011) Developing seed zones and transfer guidelines with multivariate regression trees. Tree Genet Genomes 7: 399-408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11295-010-0341-7

Harper GJ, Comeau PG, Biring BS, Reid WJ, Fielder P (1998) A comparison of mulch mat and herbicide treatments for reducing grass competition in the IDFww. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Research Branch, Victoria, BC. Exten. Note 27.

Haywood DJ (1999) Durability of selected mulches, their ability to control weeds, and influence growth of Loblolly pine seedlings. New Forest 18: 263-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006699910149

Haywood DJ, Sung SJS, Sword Sayer MA (2012) Copper root pruning and container cavity size influence longleaf pine growth through five growing seasons. South J Appl For 36: 146-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.5849/sjaf.10-051

Heryati Y, Abdu A, Mahat MN, Abdul-Hamid H, Majid NM, Heriansyah I, Ahmad K (2011) Assessing forest plantation productivity of exotic and indigenous species on degraded secondary forests. American Am J Agric Biol Sci 6: 201-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.3844/ajabssp.2011.201.208

Hipps NA, Higgs KH, Collard LG (1996) The effect of irrigation and root pruning on the growth of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) seedlings in nursery beds and after transplantation. J Hortic Sci 71: 819-828. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14620316.1996.11515464

Hobbs SD (1992) Seedling and site interactions. In: Hobbs SD (ed) Reforestation practices in Southwestern Oregon and Northern California, Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA. pp. 114-135.

Hobbs SD, SG Stafford, Slagle RL (1987) Undercutting conifer seedlings: effect of morphology and field performance on droughty sites. Can J Forest Res 17:40-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x87-008

Howe TG, Aitken NS, Neale BD, Jermstad DK, Wheeler CN, Chen HHT (2003) From genotype to phenotype: unraveling the complexities of cold adaptation in forest trees. Can J Forest Bot 81: 1247-1266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/b03-141

Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia (2013) http://www.hidmet.gov.rs/podaci/meteorologija/ciril/l2012.pdf (Accessed online: 24.12.2015)

Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia (2015) http://www.hidmet.gov.rs/ciril/meteorologija/klimatologija_temp_rezim.php (Accessed online: 11.11.2015)

Hytönen J, Jylhä P (2005) Effects of competing vegetation and post-planting weed control on the mortality, growth and vole damages to Betula pendula planted on former agricultural land. Silva Fenn 39: 365-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.14214/sf.374

Hytönen J, Jylhä P (2008) Fifteen-year response of weed control intensity and seedling type on Norway spruce survival and growth on arable land. Silva Fenn 42: 355-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.14214/sf.242

Ionov N, Plugtschieva M, Milev M (2000) Afforestation programmes in Bulgaria. In Weber N (ed) NEWFOR – New Forests for Europe: Afforestation at the Turn of the Century, EFI Proc. 35, Joensuu: EFI. pp 213-220.

IPCC (2014) Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. In: Pachauri RK, Meyer LA (eds) Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. 151 p.

Isaac-Renton MG, Roberts DR, Hamann A, Spiecker H (2014) Douglas-fir plantations in Europe: A retrospective test of assisted migration to address climate change. Global Change Biol 20: 2607-2617. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12604

Iverson LR, Schwartz MW, Prasad AM (2004) How fast and far might tree species migrate in the eastern United States due to climate change? Global Ecology Biogeogr 13: 209-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-822X.2004.00093.x

Ivetić V (2013) Handbook on Seed production, seedling production and afforestation [On Serbian: Praktikum iz Semenarstva, rasadniÄarstva i poÅ¡umljavanja]. University of Belgrade – Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade, Serbia. 213 p.

Ivetić V (2015) Reforestation in Serbia: Success or failure? In: Ivetić V, Stanković D (eds) Proceedings: International conference Reforestation Challenges, 03-06 June 2015, Belgrade, Serbia. pp 1-12.

Ivetić V, Škorić M (2013) The impact of seeds provenance and nursery production method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) seedlings quality. Ann For Res 56(2): 297-305.

Ivetić V, Vilotić D (2014) The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development. Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry – Special Edition: 157-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/GSF14S1157I

Ivetić V, Isajev V, Å ijaÄić-Nikolić M (2005) Results of fourteen year's old Norway spruce provenance test in Serbia. Proceedings of Symposium Forest and Sustainable Development, Brasov, Romania. pp 65-71.

Ivetić V, Davorija Z, Vilotić D (2013) Relationship between morphological and physiological attributes of hop hornbeam seedlings. Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry 108: 39-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/GSF1308039I

Ivetić V, Grossnickle S, Škorić M (2016) Forecasting the field performance of Austrian pine seedlings using morphological attributes. In Press

Jacobs DF (2014) Advances in fertilization for forest regeneration. In: Wilkinson KM, Haase DL, Pinto JR, (technical coordinators), National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations—2013. Fort Collins (CO): USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Proceedings RMRS-P-72. pp 3-5.

Jacobs DF, Steinbeck K (2001) Tree shelters improve the survival and growth of planted Engelmann Spruce seedlings in southwestern Colorado. West J Appl For 16: 114-120.

Jacobs DF, Wilson BC, Davis AS (2004a) Recent trends in hardwood seedling quality assessment. In: Riley LE, Dumroese RK and Landis TD (technical coordinators), National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations-2003. USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station Proceedings RMRS-P-33. pp 140-144.

Jacobs DF, Rose R, Haase D, Alzugaray P (2004b) Fertilization at planting im-pairs root system development and drought avoidance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings. Ann Forest Sci 61: 643-651. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:2004065

Jacobs DF, Salifu KF, Seifert JR (2005) Relative contribution of initial root and shoot morphology in predicting field performance of hardwood seedlings. New Forest 30: 235-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-005-5419-y

Jacobs DF, Oliet JA, Aronson J, Bolte A, Bullock JM, Donoso PJ, Landhäusser SM, Madsen P, Peng S, Rey-Benayas JMR, Weber JC (2015) Restoring forests: What constitutes success in the 21st century? New Forest 46: 601-614. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-015-9513-5

Jamnická G, Ditmarová Ľ, Kurjak D, Kmeť J, Pšidová E, Macková M, Gömöry D, Střelcová K (2013) The soil hydrogel improved photosynthetic performance of beech seedlings treated under drought. Plant Soil Environ 59: 446-451.

Jelić G (2012) Effects of container type and field preparation on afforestation success in Mediterranean area [In Croatian: Utjecaj vrste kontejnera i pripreme tla na uspjeh poÅ¡umljavanja u sredozemnom podruÄju]. Doctoral Thesis. University of Zagreb - Faculty of Forestry.

Jinks R, Mason B (1998) Effects of seedling density on the growth of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritime Melv.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) in containers. Ann Forest Sci 55: 407-423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:19980402

Johnson JD, Cline ML (1991) Seedling quality of southern pines. In: Duryea ML, Dougherty PM (eds) Forest regeneration manual. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp 143–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3800-0_8

Jović N, Tomić Z, Burlica Č, Jovanović B, Jović D, Grbić P, Jović P, Jovković R (1998) Ecological basis for afforestation of bare lands in Central Serbia. [In Serbian: Ekološke osnove za pošumljavanje neobraslih šumskih površina središnje Srbije]. Institute for multidisciplinary research University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade. 55 p.

Jylhä P, Hytönen J (2006) Effect of vegetation control on the survival and growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce planted on former agricultural land. Can J Forest Res 36: 2400–2411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x06-053

Kaczmarek DJ, Pope PE (1993) Covariate analysis of northern red oak seedling growth. In: Proceedings of 7th biennial southern silvicultural research Conference, 1992 Novermber 17-19, Mobile, AL. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-93. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. New Orleans, LA, USA. pp 351-356.

Kainer KA, Duryea ML (1990) Root wrenching and lifting date of slash pine: effects on morphology, survival, and growth. New Forest 4:207-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00118878

KarliÄić V, Golubović Ćurguz V, RaiÄević V (2016) The alleviation of reforestration challenges by beneficial soil microorganisms. Reforesta 1:238-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.21750/REFOR.1.12.12

KarliÄić V, Radić D, JoviÄić Petrović J, Golubović-Ćurguz V, Kiković D, RaiÄević V (2015) Inoculation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings with plant growth promoting bacteria causes increased growth in coal mine overburden. In: Ivetić V, Stanković D (eds) Proceedings: International conference Reforestation Challenges, 03-06 June 2015, Belgrade, Serbia, pp 42-49.

Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Zerbe S, Annighöfer P, Terwei A, Ammer C (2013) Exotic tree seedlings are much more competitive than natives but show underyielding when growing together. J Plant Ecol 6: 305-315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rts044

King GA, Herstrom AA (1996) Holocene tree migration rates objectively determined from fossil pollen data. In: Huntley B, Cramer W, Marsa AV, Prentice IC, Allen JRM (eds) Past and future environmental changes: the spatial and evolutionary responses of terrestrial biota, New York, USA: Springer Verlag. pp 91-102.

Kirschbaum M, Fischlln A (1996) Climate change impacts on forests. In: Watson R, Zinyowera MC, Moss RH (eds) Climate change 1995 - Impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: scientific-technical analysis. Contribution of Working Group to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge a.o. pp 95-129.

Kjær ED, Lobo A, Myking T (2014) The role of exotic tree species in Nordic forestry. Scand J Forest Res 29: 323-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2014.926098

Kjelgren R (2010) Isohydric and anisohydric water use considerations in species selection for the great green wall of Africa. In Dia A, Duponnois R (eds) Le projet majeur africain de la Grande Muraille Verte: Concepts et mise en œuvre. IRD Éditions. Tiré de http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/2115.

Kloetzel S (2004) Revegetation and restoration planting tools: an in-the-field perspective. Native Plants Journal 5: 34-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2979/NPJ.2004.5.1.34

Klossas G, Kyriazopoulos A, Koukoura Z (2012) Post-planting treatments and shading effects in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. silvopastoral system. Ann For Res 56: 179-186.

Kostopoulou E, Jones PD (2005) Assessment of climate extremes in the Eastern Mediterranean. Meteorol Atmos Phys 89: 69-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00703-005-0122-2

Krakowski K, Stoehr M (2009) Coastal Douglas-fir provenance variation: patterns and predictions for British Columbia seed transfer. Ann For Sci 66:811-821. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest/2009069

Kremer A (2010) Evolutionary responses of European oaks to climate change. Irish For 67: 53-65.

Kremer A, Ronce O, Robledo-Arnuncio JJ, Guillaume F, Bohrer G, Nathan R, Bridle JR, Gomulkiewicz R, Klein EK, Ritland K, Kuparinen A, Gerber S, Schueler S (2012) Long-distance gene flow and adaptation of forest trees to rapid climate change. Ecol Lett 15: 378-392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01746.x

Laliberté E, Bouchard A, Cogliastro A (2008) Optimizing hardwood reforestation in old fields: The effects of treeshelters and environmental factors on tree seedling growth and physiology. Restor Ecol 16: 270–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2007.00270.x

Landis TD (2011) The target plant concept—a history and brief overview. In: Riley LE, Haase DL, Pinto JR (technical coordinators), National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations—2010. Proc. RMRS-P-65. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. pp 61-66. Available at: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_p065.html

Landis TD, Haase DL (2012) Applications of hydrogels in the nursery and during outplanting. In: Haase DL, Pinto JR, Riley LE (technical coordinators) National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations—2011. Fort Collins (CO): USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Proceedings RMRS-P-68. pp 53-58. Available at: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_p068.html

Landis TD, Dumroese RK, Haase DL (2010) The container tree nursery manual. Vol. 7, Seedling processing, storage, and outplanting, Agric. Handbk. 674. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 200 p.

Larsen HS, South DB, Boyer JM (1986) Root growth potential, seedling morphology and bud dormancy correlate with survival of Loblolly pine seedlings planted in December in Alabama. Tree Physiol 1: 253-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/1.3.253

Laušević R, Jones-Walters L, Nieto A (2008) Climate change and biodiversity in South-East Europe – impacts and action. REC, Szentendre, Hungary; ECNC, Tilburg, the Netherlands. 67 p.

Lazarus ED, McGill BJ (2014) Pushing the pace of tree species migration. PLoS ONE 9(8): e105380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105380

Ledig FT, Kitzmiller LH (1992) Genetic strategies for reforestation in the face of global climate change. For Ecol Manage 50: 153-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(92)90321-Y

Leites LP, Robinson AP, Rehfeldt GE, Marshall JD, Crookston NL (2012) Height-growth response to climatic changes differs among populations of Douglas-fir: A novel analysis of historic data. Ecol Appl 22: 154-165. pmid:22471081. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/11-0150.1

LePage P, Dave CK (1994) Growth of planted lodgepole pine and hybrid spruce following chemical and manual vegetation control on a frost-prone site. Can J Forest Res 24: 208-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x94-031

Li G, Wang J, Oliet JA, Jacobs DF (2016) Combined pre-hardening and fall fertilization facilitates N storage and field performance of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings. iForest (early view) [online 2016-01-07] http://dx.doi.org/10.3832/ifor1708-008

Li GL, Liu Y, Zhu Y, Yang J, Sun HY, Jia ZK, Ma LY (2011) Influence of initial age and size on the field performance of Larix olgensis seedlings. New Forest 42: 215-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-011-9248-x

Loarie SR, Duffy PB, Hamilton H, Asner GP, Field CB, Ackerly DD (2009) The velocity of climate change. Nature 462: 1052-1056. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08649

Löf M, Dey DC, Navarro RM, Jacobs DF (2012) Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration. New Forest 43: 825-848. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-012-9332-x

Lujić R (1960) "The local heat factor" and its role in vegetation distribution. [In Serbian: "Lokalni toplotni faktor" i njegova uloga u rasporedu vegetacije]. Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry 18, Doctoral thesis, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry. 104 p.

Lujić R (1973) Forest melioration [In Serbian: ШумÑке мелиорације. Уџбеник Универзитет у Београду ШумарÑки факултет]. University handbook – University of Belgrade – Faculty of Forestry. 415 p.

Lukić S (2013) The effects of ameliorative afforestations in GrdeliÄka gorge and Vranjska valley. [In Serbian: Мелиоративни ефекти противерозионих пошумљавања на подручју Грделичке клиÑуре и ВрањÑке котлине]. Ph D Thesis. University of Belgrade – Faculty of Forestry. 227 p.

Lukić S, Kadović R, Knežević M, Beloica J, Äukić V, Belanović Simić S (2015) Soil carbon accumulation as a response to the afforestation method used in the Grdelica gorge in southeastern Serbia. In: Ivetić V, Stanković D (eds) Proceedings: International conference Reforestation Challenges. 03-06 June 2015, Belgrade, Serbia. pp 104-116.

Mattsson A (1996) Predicting field performance using seedling quality assessment. New Forest 13: 227-252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006590409595

Mc Carthy N, Mc Carthy C, Rathaille MO (2007) Mulch mats - their potential in establishing forest and other tree crops. COFORD, Dublin. 36 p.

McCreary DD, Tecklin J (1997) Effects of seedling protectors and weed control on blue Oak growth and survival. In: Pillsbury NH, Verner J, Tietje WD (tech coord) Proceedings of a symposium on oak woodlands: Ecology, management, and urban interface issues, 19–22 March 1996, San Luis Obispo, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. pp 243-250.

McCreary DD, Tecklin J (2001) The effects of different sizes of tree shelters on blue Oak (Quercus douglasii) growth. West J Appl For 16: 153-158.

McDonald MP, Helgerson TO (1990) Mulches aid in regenerating California and Oregon forests: past, present, and future. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-123. Berkeley, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, US. Department of Agriculture. 19 p.

McDonald PM, Fiddler GO, Harrison HR (1994) Mulching to regenerate a harsh site: Effect on Douglas-fir seedlings, forbs, grasses, and ferns. US Dep Agric For Serv, SW Res Sta, Albany, CA Res Pap psw-rp-222.

McLachlan JS, Clark JS, Manos PS (2005) Molecular indicators of tree migration capacity under rapid climate change. Ecology 86: 2088-2098. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/04-1036

McTague JP, Tinus RW (1996) The effects of seedling quality and forest site weather on field survival of ponderosa pine. Tree Plant 47:16-32.

Menzies Ml, Van Dorsser JC, Balneaves JM (1985) Seedling quality-radiata pine as a case study. In South DB (ed) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nursery Management Practices for the Southern Pines, 1985. Aug. 5-9, Montgomery, Alabama, USA. pp 384-415.

Mercurio R, Schirone B (2015) Black pine reforestation of the Apennines in the Abruzzi region (central Italy): Perspectives and management. In: Ivetić V, Ćirkovićâ€Mitrović T (eds) Book of abstracts: International conference Reforestation Challenges, Belgrade 03â€06 June 2015. pp 36.

Mexal JG, Landis TD (1990) Target seedling concepts: Height and diameter. In: Proceedings of Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Association Target Seedling Symposium, U.S. Department of Agriculture – Forest Service General Technical Report RM-200. Fort Collins, CO, USA. pp 17-36.

Mexal JG, South DB (1991) Bareroot seedling culture. In: Duryea ML, Dougherty PM (eds) Forest regeneration manual Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp 89-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3800-0_6

Mexal JG, Cuevas Rangel RA, Landis TD (2009) Reforestation success in central Mexico: Factors determining survival and early growth. Tree Planters notes 53: 16-22.

Millar CI, Stephenson NL, Stephens SL (2007) Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecol Appl 17: 2145-2151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/06-1715.1

Mishra PK, Osman M (2011) Techniques of water conservation and rainwater harvesting for drought management. In: Satendra, Venkateswarlu B (eds) SAARC Training Program, 18-29 July, 2011, Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India. 714 p.

Moriondo M, Good P, Durao R, Bindi M, Giannakopoulos C, Corte-Real J (2006) Potential impact of climate change on fire risk in the Mediterranean area. Climate Res 31: 85-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/cr031085

Navarro Cerrillo RM, Fragueiro B, Ceaceros C, Del Campo A, De Prado R (2005) Establishment of Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp. using different weed control strategies in Southern Spain. Ecol Eng 25: 332-342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2005.06.002

Nebgen RJ, Meyer JF (1986) Seed bed density, undercutting, and lateral root pruning effects on Loblolly pine seedling morphology, field survival, and growth. In: South DB (ed) Proceedings of International Symposium on Nursery Management Practices for the Southern Pines, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, AL, USA. pp 136-147.

Noland LT, Mohammed HG, Wagner GR (2001) Morphological characteristics associated with tolerance to competition from herbaceous vegetation for seedlings of Jack pine, Black spruce and White pine. New Forest 21: 199-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1012091917395

Nolte DL, Wagner KK (2000) Comparing the efficacy of delivery systems and active ingredients of deer repellents. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 19: 93–100.

O'Neill GA, Radley RA, Chanway CP (1992) Variable effects of emergence-promoting rhizobacteria on conifer seedling growth under nursery conditions. Biol Fert Soils 13: 45–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00337237

OECD (2015) OECD Forest Seed and Plant Scheme. 53 p. (Accessed online on 2015-12-21 at: http://www.oecd.org/tad/code/RuleAndRegulations_EN_2015.pdf)

Oliet AJ, Planelles R, Artero F, Jacobs FD (2005) Nursery fertilization and tree shelters affect long-term field response of Acacia salicina Lindl. planted in Mediterranean semiarid conditions. Forest Ecol Manage 215: 339-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.05.024

Oliet AJ, Planelles R, Artero F, Valverde R, Jacobs DF, Segura LM (2009) Field performance of Pinus halepensis planted in Mediterranean arid conditions: Relative influence of seedling morphology and mineral nutrition. New Forest 37: 313-331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-008-9126-3

Önol B, Semazzi FHM (2009) Regionalization of climate change simulations over the eastern Mediterranean. J Clim 22: 1944-1961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI1807.1

Óskarsson Ú (2010) Potting substrate and nursery fertilization regime influence mycorrhization and field performance of Betula pubescens seedlings. Scand J Forest Res 25: 111-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827581003730781

Ovalle J, Arellano E, Ginocchio R (2015) Trade-offs between drought survival and rooting strategy of two South American Mediterranean tree species: implications for dryland forests restoration. Forests 6: 3733-3747. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/f6103733

Owston PW (1990) Target seedling specifications: Are stocktype designations useful? In: Rose R, Campbell SJ, Landis TD (eds) Proceedings, Western Forest Nursery Association; 1990 August 13-17; Roseburg, OR. General Technical Report RM-200. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. pp 9-16. Available at: http://www.fcanet.org/proceedings/1990/owston.pdf

Padilla FM, Pugnaire FI (2006) The role of nurse plants in the restoration of degraded environments. Front Ecol Environ 4(4): 196–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2006)004[0196:TRONPI]2.0.CO;2

Palacios G, Cerrillo N M R, Campo A, Toral M (2009) Site preparation, stock quality and planting date effect on early establishment of Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) seedlings. Ecological Engineering 35 (1): 38-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.09.006

Pedlar JH, McKenney DW, Beaulieu J, Colombo SJ, McLachlan JS, O'Neill GA (2011) The implementation of assisted migration in Canadian forests. Forestry Chronicle 87: 766–777. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc2011-093

Pedlar JH, McKenney DW, Aubin I, Beardmore T, Beaulieu J, Iverson L, O'Neill GA, Winder RS, Ste-Marie C (2012) Placing forestry in the assisted migration debate. Bioscience 62: 835-842. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.9.10

Pery R, Save M, Marfa O, Serrano L (1995) The effect of a hydrophilic polymer on plant water status and survival of transplanted pine seedlings. Horttechnology 5: 141–143.

Peterson J (1997) Growing environment and container type influence field performance of Black spruce container stock. New Forest 13: 329-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006598611412

Pinto JR, Marshall JD, Dumroese RK, Davis AS, Cobos DR (2011) Establishment and growth of container seedlings for reforestation: A function of stocktype and edaphic conditions. Forest Ecol Manage 261: 1876-1884. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.02.010

Pinto JR, Marshall JD, Dumroese RK, Davis AS, Cobos DR (2012) Photosynthetic response, carbon isotopic composition, survival, and growth of three stock types under water stress enhanced by vegetative competition. Can J For Res 42: 333-344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x11-189

Pinto JR, Marshall JD, Dumroese KR, Davis AS, Cobos DR (2016) Seedling establishment and physiological responses to temporal and spatial soil moisture changes. New Forest 47: 223-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-015-9511-7

Potter MK, Hargrove WW (2012) Determining suitable locations for seed transfer under climate change: a global quantitative method. New Forest 43: 581-599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-012-9322-z

Prinz D (1996) Water harvesting: past and future. In: Pereira LS (ed) Proceedings: Sustainability of irrigated agriculture, NATO advanced research workshop, Vimeiro, 21-26.03. 1994, Balkema, Rotterdam. pp 135-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8700-6_10

Prober SM, Byrne M, McLean EH, Steane DA, Potts BM, Vaillancourt RE, Stock WD (2015) Climate-adjusted provenancing: A strategy for climate-resilient ecological restoration. Front Ecol Evol 3: 65. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2015.00065

Puertolas J, Gil L, Pardos JA (2003) Effects of nutritional status and seedling size on field performance of Pinus halepensis planted on former arable land in the Mediterranean basin. Forestry 76: 159-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/forestry/76.2.159

Querejeta IJ, Roldán A, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (1998) The role of mycorrhizae, site preparation, and organic amendment in the afforestation of a semi-arid Mediterranean site with Pinus halepensis. Forest Sci 44: 203-211.

Regan DJ, Apostol KG, Davis AS (2015) Stocktype influences western white pine seedling size 6 years after outplanting. Tree Planters' Notes 58: 37-41.

Ren H, Yang L, Liu N (2008) Nurse plant theory and its application in ecological restoration in lower subtropics of China. Prog Nat Sci 18: 137-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnsc.2007.07.008

Renwick KM, Rocca ME (2015) Temporal context affects the observed rate of climate-driven range shifts in tree species. Global Ecol Biogeogr 24: 44-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.12240

Rey Benayas MJ, Navarro J, Espigares T, Nicolau MJ, Zavala AM (2005) Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland with contrasting Quercus species. Forest Ecol Manage 212: 302-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.03.032

Reyer C, Guericke M, Ibisch PL (2009) Climate change mitigation via afforestation, reforestation and deforestation avoidance: and what about adaptation to environmental change? New Forest 38: 15–34.

Rietveld WJ, Van Sambeek JW (1989) Relating black walnut planting stock to field performance. In: Rink G, Budelsky CA (eds) Proceedings of the seventh central hardwood forest conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. pp 162-169.

Rincon A, De Felipe MR, Fernandez-Pascual M (2007) Inoculation of Pinus halepensis Mill. with selected ectomycorrhizal fungi improves seedling establishment 2 years after planting in a degraded gypsum soil. Mycorrhiza 18: 23-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-007-0149-y

Ritchie GA (1984) Assessing seedling quality. In: Duryea ML, Landis TD (eds) Forest nursery manual: Production of bareroot seedlings. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague. pp 243-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6110-4_23

Rodríguez-Echeverría S, Lozano YM, Bardgett RD (2016) Influence of soil microbiota in nurse plant systems. Funct Ecol 30: 30–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12594

Roldan A, Querejeta I, Albadalejo J, Castillo V (1996) Growth response of Pinus halepensis to inoculation with Pisolithus arhizus in a terraced rangeland with urban refuse. Plant Soil 179: 35–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00011640

Rose R, Ketchum JS (2002) Interaction of vegetation control and fertilization on conifer species across the Pacific Northwest. Can J Forest Res 32: 136-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x01-180

Rose R, Ketchum JS (2003) Interaction of initial seedling diameter, fertilization and weed control on Douglas-fir growth over the first four years after planting. Ann Forest Sci 60: 625-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:2003055

Rose R, Gleason JF, Atkinson M (1993) Morphological and water-stress characteristics of three Douglas-fir stocktypes in relation to seedling performance under different soil moisture conditions. New Forest 7: 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00037468

Rose R, Haase DL, Kroiher F, Sabin T (1997) Root volume and growth of Ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir seedlings: a summary of eight growing seasons. West J Appl For 12: 69-73.

Rose R, Ketchum JS, Hanson DE (1999) Three-year survival and growth of Douglas-fir seedlings under various vegetation-free regimes. For Sci 45: 117-126.

Rose R, Haase D, Arellano E (2004) Controlled-release fertilizers: potential for enhanced reforestation productivity. Bosque 25: 89-100.

Rosner LS, Rose R (2006) Synergistic stem volume response to combinations of vegetation control and seedling size in conifer plantations in Oregon. Can J Forest Res 35: 930-944.

Rowan SJ (1986) Seedbed density affects performance of slash and loblolly pine in Georgia. In: South DB (ed) Proceedings: International symposium on nursery management practices for the southern pines, 1985 Aug 4–9; Montgomery, AL. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, AL, USA. pp 126-135.

SarvaÅ¡ M, Pavlenda P, TakáÄová E (2007) Effect of hydrogel application on survival and growth of Pine seedlings in reclamations. J Forest Sci 53: 204-209.

Schaap W, DeYoe DR (1985) Seedling protectors for preventing deer browse. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis. Research Bulletin 54. 12 p.

Schmidtling RC, MyszewskiJH (2003) Effect of large-scale movement of loblolly pine seed on genetic integrity of the species in its natural range. In: Beaulieu J (ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium of the North American Forest Commission, Forest Genetic Resources and Silviculture Working Groups, and the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), September 21, Quebec City, Canada. pp 43-48.

Sgrò CM, Lowe AJ, Hoffmann AA (2011) Building evolutionary resilience for conserving biodiversity under climate change. Evol Appl 4(2): 326-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00157.x

Sharma RK, Mason EG, Sorensson C (2007) Impact of planting stock quality on initial growth and survival of radiata pine clones and modelling initial growth and survival. New Zeal J Forest 52:14-23.

Shipman RD (1964) Low seedbed densities can improve early height growth of planted slash and loblolly pine seedlings. J Forest 62: 814-817.

Shishido M, Petersen JD, Massicotte BH, Chanway PC (1996a) Pine and Spruce seedling Growth and mycorrhizal infection after inoculation with plant growth promoting Pseudomonas strains. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 21: 109-119.

Shishido M, Massicotte HB, Chanway CP (1996b) Effect of plant growth promoting bacillus strains on Pine and Spruce seedling growth and mycorrhizal infection. Ann Bot-London 77: 433-442.

Siipilehto J (2001) Effect of weed control with fibre mulches and herbicides on the initial development of spruce, birch and aspen seedlings on abandoned farmland. Silva Fennica 35: 403–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.14214/sf.577

Siipilehto J, Lyly O (1995) Weed control trials with fibre mulch, glyphosate and terbuthylazine in Scots pine plantations. Silva Fenn 29: 41-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9196

Simard S, Vyse A (2006) Trade-offs between competition and facilitation: A case study of vegetation management in the interior Cedar–Hemlock forests of Southern British Columbia. Can J Forest Res 36 (10): 2486-2496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x06-150

Simpson DG (1991) Growing density and container volume affect nursery and field growth of interior spruce seedlings. North J Appl For 8: 160-165.

Simpson DG (1994) nursery growing density and container volume affect nursery and field growth of Douglas-fir and Lodgepole pine seedlings. In: Landis TD, Dumroese RK (tech coords), Proceedings, Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations, 1994, July 11-14, Williamsburg, VA. General Technical Report RM-GTR-257. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO, USA. pp 105–115.

Sippel S, Otto FEL (2014) Beyond climatological extremes - assessing how the odds of hydrometeorological extreme events in South-East Europe change in a warming climate. Climatic Change 125: 381-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1153-9

Sutton RF (1995) White spruce establishment: initial fertilization, weed control, and irrigation evaluated after three decades. New Forests 9: 123-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00028685

Stange EE, Shea LK (1998) Effects of deer browsing, fabric mats, and tree shelters on Quercus rubra seedlings. Restor Ecol 6: 29-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100x.1998.00614.x

Stepanek LJ, Brandle JR, Harrell MO (2002) Assessment of microenvironmental conditions related to the use of synthetic sheet mulches for protecting newly planted trees in semi-arid environments. J Sustain Agr 19: 15-347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J064v19n04_04

Sloan JP, Jump LH, Ryker RA (1987) Container grown Ponderosa pine seedlings outperform bareroot seedlings on harsh sites in southern Utah. Research Paper INT-384. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah, USA. 14 p.

South DB (1993) Rationale for growing southern pine seedlings at low seedbed densities. New Forest 7: 63-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00037473

South DB (2005) A review of the pull up and leave down methods of planting Loblolly pine. Tree Planters' Notes 51: 53-67.

South DB, Mitchell RJ (1999) Determining the "optimum" slash pine seedling size for use with four levels of vegetation management on a flatwoods site in Georgia, USA. Can J Forest Res 29: 1039-1046. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x99-048

South DB, Harris SW, Barnett JP, Hainds MJ, Gjerstad DH (2005) Effect of container type and seedling size on survival and early height growth of Pinus palustris seedlings in Alabama, U.S.A. Forest Ecol Manage 204: 385-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.09.016

South DB, Jackson DP, Starkey TE, Enebak SA (2012) Planting deep increases early survival and growth of Pinus echinata seedlings. The Open Forest Science Journal 5: 33-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874398601205010033

Spinoni J, Lakatos M, Szentimrey T, Bihari Z, Szalai S, Vogt J, Antofie T (2015) Heat and cold waves trends in the Carpathian Region from 1961 to 2010. Int J Climatol 35: 4197-4209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.4279

Spittlehouse DL, Stewart RB (2003) Adapting to climate change in forest management. J Ecosystems Manage 4: 7–17.

Stanturf JA, Palik BJ, Dumroese RK (2014) Contemporary forest restoration: A review emphasizing function. Forest Ecol Manage 331: 292-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.07.029

Stein IW (1984) Wrenching Douglas-fir seedlings in August: immediate but no lasting effects. Res. Pap. PNW-317 Portland, OR: U.S, Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p.

Stewart JD, Bernier PY (1995) Gas exchange and water relations of 3 sizes of containerized Picea mariana seedlings subjected to atmospheric and edaphic water stress under controlled conditions. Ann Forest Sci 52: 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:19950101

Stilinović S (1991) Afforestation. NauÄna knjiga, Belgrade. University book. 274 p. [In Serbian]

Stroempl G (1990) Deeper planting of seedlings and transplants increases plantation survival. Tree Planters' Notes 41: 17-21.

Å ijaÄić-Nikolić M, Vilotić D, Milovanović J (2011) Effect of polymers on Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.) аnd Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) seedling development in afforestation. Global Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 1: 11-18.

Å korić M, Krsmanović I, Ristić R, ÄorÄ‘ević U (1997) Application of explosive in afforestation on "Ellipse". Proceeding book of the 3rd ICFWST 97, September 29th – October 3rd, 1997, Belgrade and Mt. GoÄ, Serbia, Yugoslavia. pp 178-181.

Tanaka Y, Walstad JD, Borrecco JE (1976) The effect of wrenching on morphology and field performance of Douglas-fir and Loblolly pine seedlings. Can J For Res 6: 453-458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x76-061

Thomas E, Jalonen R, Loo J, Boshier D, Gallo L, Cavers S, Bozzano M (2014) Genetic considerations in ecosystem restoration using native tree species. Forest Ecol Manage 333: 66-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.07.015

Thompson BE (1985) Seedling morphological evaluation: what you can tell by looking. In: Duryea ML (ed) Evaluating seedling quality: principles, procedures, and predictive ability of major tests Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA. pp 59-72.

Thomson JR, Schultz RC (1995) Root system morphology of Quercus rubra L. planting stock and 3-year field performance in lowa. New Forest 9: 225-236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00035489

Timmer VR (1997) Exponential nutrient loading: A new fertilization technique to improve seedling performance on competitive sites. New Forest 13: 279-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006502830067

Timmer VR, Aidelbaum AS (1996) Manual for exponential nutrient loading of seedlings to improve outplanting performance on competitive forest sites. Nat Resour Can, Canadian Forest Service-Sault Ste. Marie, ON. NODA/NFP Tech Rep TR-25. 21 p. + appendix.

Tomašević A (1994) Undermining as first stage of soil preparation for afforestation. [In Croatian: Podrivanje kao prva faza pripreme tla za pošumljavanje] Šumarski list 5-6: 173-181.

Tomić Z, Rakonjac Lj, Veselinović M, Nevenić R (2011) Species and intra-species selection for afforestation and melioration. In: Tomić Z, Rakonjac Lj, Isajev V (eds) The selection of species for reforestation and amelioration in central Serbia, Institute of Forestry, Belgrade, Serbia.

Trent A, Nolte D, Wagner K (2001) Comparison of commercial deer repellents. USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications. Paper 572

Tsakaldimi M, Ganatsas P, Jacobs DF (2012) Prediction of planted seedling survival of five Mediterranean species based on initial seedling morphology. New Forest 44: 327-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-012-9339-3

Tuttle CL, South DB, Golden MS, Meldahl RS (1988) Initial Pinus taeda seedling height relationships with early survival and growth. Can J Forest Res 18: 867-871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x88-133

Van den Driessche R (1991) Influence of container nursery regimes on drought resistance of seedlings following planting: survival and growth. Can J Forest Res 21: 555-565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x91-077

Viherä-Aarnio A, Häkkinen R, Partanen J, Luomajoki A, Koski V (2005) Effects of seed origin and sowing time on timing of height growth cessation of Betula pendula seedlings. Tree Physiol 25: 101-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/25.1.101

Vilagrosa A, Cortina J, Gil-Pelegrin E, Bellot J (2003) Suitability of Drought preconditioning techniques in Mediterranean climate. Restor Ecol 11: 208-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100X.2003.00172.x

Villar-Salvador P, Planelles R, Enríquez E, Pe-uelas-Rubira J (2004a) Nursery cultivation regimes, plant functional attributes, and field performance relationships in the Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex L. For Ecol Manage 196: 257-266.

Villar-Salvador P, Planelles R, Oliet J, Pe-uelas -Rubira JL, Jacobs DF, González M (2004b) Drought tolerance and transplanting performance of Holm oak (Quercus ilex) seedlings after drought hardening in the nursery. Tree Physiol 24: 1147-1155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/24.10.1147

Villar-Salvador P, Puértolas J, Pe-uelas JL, Planelles R (2005) Effect of nitrogen fertilization in the nursery on the drought and frost resistance of Mediterranean forest species. For Syst (formerly Inv Agrarias: Sist Rec For) 14: 408-418. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/srf/2005143-00935

Villar-Salvador P, Puértolas J, Cuesta B, Pe-uelas JL, Uscola M, Heredia-Guerrero N, Rey Benayas JM (2012) Increase in size and nitrogen concentration enhances seedling survival in Mediterranean plantations. Insights from an ecophysiological conceptual model of plant survival. New Forest 43: 755-770. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-012-9328-6

Višnjić Ć, Mekić F, Balić B (2004) Usage of the new techniques for the planting by afforestation of the extreme area. [In Bosnian: Upotreba novih tehnika sadnje sadnica kod pošumljavanja ekstremnih staništa. Radovi Šumarskog fakulteta, Univerziteta u Sarajevu. Br. 1 Knjiga XXXIV, Sarajevo 2004] Works of the Faculty of Forestry, University of Sarajevo, BIH, 1: 57-65.

Wagner GR (2005) Top 10 principles for managing competing vegetation to maximize regeneration success and long-term yields. In Colombo SJ (ed) The Thin Green Line: A Symposium on the State-of-the-Art in Reforestation, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Forest Research Information Paper 160. pp 32-36.

Wagner GR, Mohammed HG, Noland LT (1999) Critical period of interspecific competition for northern conifers associated with herbaceous vegetation. Can J Forest Res 29: 890-897. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x99-055

Wagner GR, Petersen DT, Ross WD, Radosevich RS (1989) Competition thresholds for the survival and growth of Ponderosa pine seedlings associated with woody and herbaceous vegetation. New Forest 3: 151-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00021579

Wagner KK, Nolte DL (2000) Evaluation of Hot Sauce® as a repellent for forest mammals. Wildlife Society Bulletin (1973-2006) 28: 76-83. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4617286

Wagner KK, Nolte DL (2001) Comparison of Active Ingredients and Delivery Systems in Deer Repellents. Wildlife Society Bulletin (1973-2006) 29(1): 322–330. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3784016

Walker RF, Mclaughlin SB (1989) Black Polyethylene mulch improves growth of plantation-grown Loblolly pine and Yellow-Poplar. New Forest 3: 265-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00028934

Wang T, O'Neill GA, Aitken SN (2010) Integrating environmental and genetic effects to predict responses of tree populations to climate. Ecol Appl 20: 153-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/08-2257.1

Ward D, Johnston TN (1986) Determination of optimum seedling bed density for bare-root Honduras Caribbean pine. In: South DB (ed) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nursery Management Practices for the Southern Pines. Montgomery Alabama August 4-9-1985. Auburn University, Alabama, USA. pp 118-125.

Ward JS, Gent MPN, Stevens GR (2000) Effects of planting stock quality and browse protection-type on height growth of northern red oak and eastern white pine. Forest Ecol Manage 127: 205-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00132-2

Williams HM, Stewart T (2006) The effects of sower and bed density on bareroot loblolly pine seedling morphology and early height growth. General Technical Report SRS-92. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC, USA, pp 45-49.

Williams MI, Dumroese RK (2013) Preparing for climate change: Forestry and assisted migration. J Forest 111: 287-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.5849/jof.13-016

Wilson ER, Vitols KC, Park A (2007) Root characteristics and growth potential of container and bare-root seedlings of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Ontario, Canada. New Forest 34: 163-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-007-9046-7

Woodall CW, Oswalt CM, Westfall JA, Perry CH, Nelson MD, Finley AO (2009) An indicator of tree migration in forests of the eastern United States. Forest Ecol Manage 257: 1434-1444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.12.013

Yohannes F (1999) Improvement of water application efficiency by moisture conservation methods for establishment of planted tree seedlings. Commun Soil Sci Plan 30: 1119-1125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00103629909370272

Yoshida M, Fujiwara M, Sakai H (2015) A proposal of a site preparation system combined with chipping operation. In: Ivetić V, Stanković D (eds) Proceedings: International conference Reforestation Challenges, 03-06 June 2015, Belgrade, Serbia, pp 211-216.

Zlatanov T, Velichkov I, Lexer MJ, Dubravac T (2010) Regeneration dynamics in aging black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) plantations on the south slopes of the Middle Balkan Range in Bulgaria. New Forest 40: 289-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-010-9200-5

Published
2016-06-05