Effect of temperature on seed germination of two Callistemon species (Myrtaceae)

Main Article Content

Abdenour Kheloufi
Lahouaria Mounia Mansouri
Ibtissam Telali
Selsabil Slimani


The genus Callistemon belongs to the family Myrtaceae and comprises 34 species. They are woody aromatic trees or shrubs that are widely distributed in the wet tropics. According to the scientific literature, research on seed germination of this genus was rarely carried out. The germination requirements of Callistemon citrinus and Callistemon linearis were studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Seeds of both species were tested for germination at constant temperatures of 25°C, 30°C, 40°C, and at room temperature (23 ± 2°C) coupled with total darkness. Seeds were sown in Petri dishes (0.8% agar water) for 25 days of incubation. The kinetics of germination was determined according to four closely related parameters viz. final germination percentage (FGP), mean germination time (MGT), coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG) and time to 50% germination (T50). The room temperature of 23 ± 2 °C was found optimally suitable for both species, with 80% FGP and 11.1 days MGT for C. citrinus, and only 21.7% FGP and 12.4 days MGT were recorded for C. linearis. Furthermore, significant decrease in FGP was observed in both species at 25°C, 30°C and 40°C of temperature. The analysis also revealed that day 12-15 after seed sowing is suitable for final counts. Due of its very low FGP, seeds of C. linearis need an additional study to determine their viability.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kheloufi, Abdenour, Lahouaria Mounia Mansouri, Ibtissam Telali, and Selsabil Slimani. “Effect of Temperature on Seed Germination of Two Callistemon Species (Myrtaceae)”. REFORESTA, no. 9 (June 30, 2020): 1-8. Accessed July 3, 2020. http://journal.reforestationchallenges.org/index.php/REFOR/article/view/121.
Author Biography

Abdenour Kheloufi, University of Batna2, Algeria

Department of Ecology and Environment


Allen PS, Benech‐Arnold RL, Batlla D, Bradford KJ (2018) Modeling of seed dormancy. Annual Plant Reviews Online 72-112. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119312994.apr0278

Baskin CC, Baskin JM (1998) Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.2000.1238

Baskin JM, Baskin CC (2004) A classification system for seed dormancy. Seed Sci Res 14(1): 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1079/ssr2003150

Bradford KJ (1995) Water relations in seed germination. Seed Development and Germination 1(13): 351-396. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203740071-13

Bradford KJ (2002) Applications of hydrothermal time to quantifying and modeling seed germination and dormancy. Weed Sci 50(2): 248-260. https://doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0248:aohttq]2.0.co;2

Brown CL, Whelan RJ (1998) The role of Callistemon fruits and infructescences in protecting seeds from heat in fires. Aust J Bot 46(2):235-239. https://doi.org/10.1071/bt97026

Cochrane A (2020) Temperature thresholds for germination in 20 short‐range endemic plant species from a Greenstone. Belt in southern Western Australia. Plant Biology 22: 103-112. https://doi.org/10.1111/plb.12951

Côme D (1970) Obstacles to germination. Masson Eds, Paris, 162p.

Dürr C, Dickie JB, Yang XY, Pritchard HW (2015) Ranges of critical temperature and water potential values for the germination of species worldwide: contribution to a seed trait database. Agr Forest Meteorol 200: 222-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.09.024

Dutra RC, Campos MM, Santos, AR, Calixto JB (2016) Medicinal plants in Brazil: Pharmacological studies, drug discovery, challenges and perspectives. Pharmacol Res 112: 4-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2016.01.021

Finch‐Savage WE, Leubner‐Metzger G (2006) Seed dormancy and the control of germination. New Phytol 171(3): 501-523. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01787.x

Finkelstein R, Reeves W, Ariizumi T, Steber C (2008) Molecular aspects of seed dormancy. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59: 387-415. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092740

GRIN (2020) Germplasm Resources Information Network. U.S. National Seed Herbarium, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. https://www.ars-grin.gov

Haque ME, Sultana A, Shibib BA, Islam MM (2012) Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels. Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 11(1): 51-54. https://doi.org/10.3329/dujps.v11i1.12487

Harrison M (2009) Flowering Shrubs and Small trees for the South. Pineapple Press Inc, 150p.

Jazet PM, Tatsadjieu LN, Ndongson BD, Kuate J, Zollo PHA, Menut C (2009) Correlation between chemical composition and antifungal properties of essential oils of Callistemon rigidus and Callistemon citrinus of Cameroon against Phaeoramularia angolensis. J Med Plants Res 3(1): 9-15.

Jones KW, Sanders DC (1987) The influence of soaking pepper seed in water or potassium salt solutions on germination at three temperatures. Journal of Seed Technology 11: 97-102.

Kheloufi A, Mansouri L, Aziz N, Sahnoune M, Boukemiche S, Ababsa B (2018) Breaking seed coat dormancy of six tree species. Reforesta 5: 4-14. https://dx.doi.org/10.21750/REFOR.5.02.48

Maria S, Kuppast IJ, Virupaksha JH, Vanajakshi M, Prasad K (2015) Glossary of Callistemon lanceolatus DC-An ornamental plant with Marvellous Properties. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics 7(4): 165-170. https://doi.org/10.5958/2321-5836.2015.00033.6

Murdoch AJ, Ellis RH (2000) Dormancy, viability and longevity. Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities 2: 183-214. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851994321.0183

Orchard T (1977) Estimating the parameters of plant seedling emergence. Seed Sci Technol 5: 61-69.

Oyedeji OO, Lawal O, Shode F, Oyedeji A (2009) Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Callistemon citrinus and Callistemon viminalis from South Africa. Molecules 14(6): 1990-1998. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14061990

Perry F, Roy H (1982) A field guide to tropical and subtropical plants; Ward Lock Limited: Britain, UK, 136p.

Roberts EH, Ellis RH (1989) Water and seed survival. Annals of Botany, 63(1):39-39.

Shaha A, Salunkhe VR (2014) Development and validation of a high-performance thin layer chromatographic method for determination of 1, 8-cineole in Callistemon citrinus. Pharmacognosy Research 6(2): 143. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.129034

Spencer RD, Lumley PF (1991) Callistemon: In Flora of New South Wales, (Harden GJ, Ed); New South Wales University Press: Sydney, Australia, 2: 168-173.

Sutter G (2010) National Recovery Plan for Forrester's Bottlebrush Callistemon forresterae. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne.

Wrigley JW, Fagg M (1993) Bottlebrushes, Paperbarks and Tea Trees and all other plants in the Leptospermum alliance. Angus & Rovertson: Sydney, Australia, 352p.

Most read articles by the same author(s)