Afforestation on bare lands – example of Ibar Gorge, Serbia
AbstractThe afforestation of bare lands, sandstone, and skeletal terrains are one of the biggest challenges forestry scientists face. These terrains are characterized by specific ecological conditions that are generally unfavorable for the growth of woody species. These are usually shallow soils, unstable, and poor in nutrients and moisture. The characteristics of these habitats make said terrains unfavorable for the regeneration of forest vegetation. It is therefore crucial for the success of afforestation to gain detailed knowledge and understanding of environmental conditions. Only after the detailed research and study of field conditions can the selection of species for afforestation, including selection of species characteristics and technology of planting, begin. Mistakes made during previous establishments of green areas are one of the main reasons some species of vascular flora have disappeared. This alone expresses the undeniable importance of knowledge on habitat specifics, work schedule, and selection of species for afforestation. With the aim to implement the future afforestation within the planned scope, it is necessary to organize an effective nursery production of seedlings with characteristics that will suit the environmental conditions of bare lands, sandstones, and skeletal terrains whose afforestation is planned.
BratiÄ‡ V, RadojiÄiÄ‡ S, KupreÅ¡anin R, VeljkoviÄ‡ V (1990) Results of studies on technique of afforestation of degraded habitats on serpentinite-peridotite massifs of Ibar gorge and Suvobor mountain, Counseling: Modern methods of afforestation, care and protection in preservation and expansion of growing stock of Serbia, Proceedings, pp. 234-247.
BraunoviÄ‡ S (2013) Effects of anti-erosion works on the state of erosion process in Grdelica gorge and Vranje basin. PhD dissertation, Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade.
Ä†irkoviÄ‡-MitroviÄ‡ T, BraÅ¡anac-Bosanac LJ, JoviÄ‡ Ä (2011) 5. Characteristics of forests and deforested areas in Central Serbia â€“ In: TomiÄ‡ Z, Rakonjac LJ, Isajev V (eds) Selection of species for afforestation and amelioration in Central Serbia, Monography book, pp. 87-104, Institute of Forestry, Belgrade.
Ä†urÄiÄ‡ R (1976) Experiences of Gorans from RaÅ¡ka in afforestation of serpentine bare grounds by use of seedlings with covered root system - Forestry, XXIX (2), 61-70.
DraÅ¾iÄ‡ M (1988) Bare terrains and afforestation in SR Serbia. Forestry, XLI (5-6), 59-66.
DraÅ¾iÄ‡ M (1992) Afforestation in Serbia, Forestry and wood processing in Serbia through centuries Society of Engineers and Technicians for forestry and wood industry, Belgrade, pp 48-68.
FilipoviÄ‡ Ä, NikodijeviÄ‡ VÄŒ (1957 (1972)) A survey of brown forest soil in Grdelica gorge: the Vranje basin and the county of Gnjilane. Yugoslavian society for soil research (Jugoslovensko druÅ¡tvo za prouÄavanje zemljiÅ¡ta); "Nolit", Belgrade, 19p.
JekiÄ‡ J (1928) Contributions to the history of forestry in Serbia, Printing office "DavidoviÄ‡ PavloviÄ‡a i druga", Belgrade.
Kappen H (1929) Die BodenaziditÃ¤t [The soil acidity]. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-91785-1
Koprivica M, RatkniÄ‡ M, Rakonjac Lj, ÄŒokeÅ¡a V (1996) Afforestation of bare lands and condition of forest populations in area of Ibar gorge. Proceedings of the Institute of Forestry, Volume 40-41, Belgrade.
Kostadinov S, ZlatiÄ‡ M, DragoviÄ‡ N (2000) Effects of Erosion Control Works in the GrdeliÄka Klisura George, Proceedings "75 godini visÅ¡e lesnotehniÄesko obrozovanie v Balgarija"; Section: Gorko Stepanstvo, LesotehniÄeski University, Sofia, pp. 115-124.
KrstiÄ‡ O (1961) Grdelica gorge and Vranje basin: natural conditions, erosion and forest economy. IÅ DI, Belgrade.
LukiÄ‡ S (2013) Ameliorative effects of anti-erosion afforestation in Grdelica gorge and Vranje basin. PhD dissertation, Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade, 1-255.
LukiÄ‡ S, KadoviÄ‡ R, KneÅ¾eviÄ‡ M, Beloica J, ÄukiÄ‡ V, BelanoviÄ‡ SimiÄ‡ S (2015) Soil carbon accumulation as a response to the afforestation method used in Grdelica gorge in southeastern Serbia. In: IvetiÄ‡ V., StankoviÄ‡ D. (eds.) Proceedings: International conference Reforestation Challenges. 03-06 June 2015, Belgrade, Serbia. Reforesta. pp. 104-116.
MedareviÄ‡ M, AleksiÄ‡ P, MiliÄ‡ S, Sklenar K (2002) Condition of conifer populations and artificially established conifer stands managed by Public enterprise "SrbijaÅ¡ume", Thinning in pine populations, Public enterprise "SrbijaÅ¡ume" and Faculty of forestry, University of Belgrade, pp. 17-23.
PavloviÄ‡ Z (1974) Meadow vegetation on serpentine soil of mountainous areas of Serbia. Bulletin of the Natural history museum in Belgrade, serial B, book 29, Belgrade.
RatkniÄ‡ M, eds (2007): Afforestation of bare lands and anthropogenically damaged soil, Monography book, Institute of Forestry, Belgrade.
SlavkoviÄ‡ Å½ (1976) Forest plant communities of Stolovi Mountain. Master Thesis, Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade.
Å mit S, KitiÄ‡ D, MarkoviÄ‡ D, ManÄiÄ‡ A (1978): Analysis of the development of forest plantations on serpentine geological substrate with seedlings with protected root system.
Å mit S, RatkniÄ‡ M, Koprivica M, TopaloviÄ‡ M (1996) Afforestation of bare lands, amelioration of degraded forests and protection of populations as a realization of spatial plan of Serbia, Counseling "Forests of Serbia â€“ condition, development projections to 2050 and expectations, Public enterprise "SrbijaÅ¡ume", Belgrade , pp. 52-65.
Å mit S, VeselinoviÄ‡ N, TopaloviÄ‡ M (1997) Afforestation of bare lands in Ibar gorge, Institute of Forestry, Belgrade, 1-103.
Soljanik I (1955) Research afforestation at Grdelica gorge. Forestry journal 12: 741-756.
StevanoviÄ‡ V, Tan K, Iatrou G (2003) Distribution of the endemic Balkan flora on serpentine I.-obligate serpentine endemics. Plant. Syst. Evol. 242: 149-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00606-003-0044-8
TatiÄ‡ B (1969) Flora and vegetation of Studena Mountain near city of Kraljevo. Bulletin of the Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden Belgrade, Vol. IV, Issues 1-4.
Thornthwaite CW (1948) An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geographical Review 38, 55-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/210739
Thornthwaite CW, Mather JR (1955) The water balance. Climatology, New York, v. 8, n. 1, 104p.
Ulrich B (1976) Stoffhaushalt von Wald-Oekosistemen. Institut fuer Bodenkunde und Waldernaehrung der Universitaet Goettingen, Deutschland.
ZlatiÄ‡ M, Kostadinov S, DragoviÄ‡ N (2001) Public Participation of Sustainable Land Resources Management in Hilly Mountainous Area of Grdelica Gorge, World Mountain Symposium 2001, Mountains of the World-Community Development between Subsidy, Subsidiarity and Sustainability, Published on CD ROM, Interlaken, Switzerland.
Copyright (c) 2016 Vladan PopoviÄ‡, Tatjana Ä†irkoviÄ‡-MitroviÄ‡
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution LicenseÂ CCBYÂ that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).