Issues and perspectives on the use of exotic species in the sustainable management of Canadian forests

  • Brenda Salmón Rivera
  • Martin Barrette
  • Nelson Thiffault
Keywords: exotic tree species, reforestation, SFM, biodiversity issues, plantation, forest certification

Abstract

Plantations offer a high potential to respond to the increasing pressure on forests to deliver social, economic, and environmental services. Exotic tree species have a long history of use in plantation forestry, mostly because of their improved productivity compared with that of native species. Because of their impacts on land management and the environment, questions arise regarding the compatibility of exotic tree plantations with sustainable forest management (SFM), the overarching paradigm driving forest legislations in Canada. Our objectives were thus to i) briefly review the historical and current use of exotic tree species in Canada, ii) identify the social, economic and environmental issues related to the use of exotic tree species in Canadian forestry, based on sustainable forest management criteria, and iii) identify perspectives related to the use of exotic tree species in the sustainable management of Canadian forests. Results show that six out of ten Canadian provinces do not have specific legislations to control the use of exotic tree species for reforestation within their borders. The use of exotic tree species is mainly controlled through third-party certification agencies. Exotic tree species represent a small proportion of the planted seedlings in Canada and Norway spruce is the most common one. The use of exotic tree species is compatible with sustainable forest management criteria used in Canada, but forest managers must take into account several issues related to their use and maintain a social license to be entitled to plant them. Issues are highly dependent upon scale. The zoning of management intensity could provide environmental, economic and social benefits, but costs/benefits analyses should be carried out. The concept of naturalness could also be useful to integrate plantations of exotic species in jurisdiction where SFM strategies are based on ecosystem management principles. Monitoring of hybridization and invasiveness of exotic species must be included in landscape analyses to forestall loss of resilience leading to compromised structural and functional ecosystem states. The use of exotics species is recognized as a tool to sequester carbon and facilitate adaptation of forests to global changes, but it is necessary to carefully identified contexts where assisted migration is justified and disentangle planned novel ecosystems coherent with global changes generated by assisted migration from those emerging from invasive species forming undesired states.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adams JM, Fang W, Callaway RM, Cipollini D, Newell E, Transatlantic Acer platanoides Invasion Network (TRAIN) (2009) A cross-continental test of the enemy release hypothesis: leaf herbivory on Acer platanoides (L.) is three times lower in North America than in its native Europe. Biol Invasions 11: 1005-1016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-008-9312-4

Alberta Forestry Division of Environment Sustainable Resource Development (2009) Alberta Forest Genetic Resource Management and Conservation Standards. http://esrd.alberta.ca/lands-forests/forest-management/forest-management-manuals-guidelines.aspx. Accessed 15 January 2015.

Anderson JA, Armstrong GW, Luckert MK, Adamowicz WL (2013) Optimal zoning of forested land considering the contribution of exotic plantations. Mathematical and Computational Forestry & Natural-Resource Sciences 4: 92-104.

Anderson JA, Luckert MK, Campbell HN (2015) Potential policy reforms for a "more exotic" Canadian forest sector: Comparing Canada's plantation policies with those in Australia, New Zealand and the United States. For Chron 91: 560-572. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc2015-095

Arbez M (2001) Ecological impacts of plantation forests on biodiversity and genetic diversity. In: Green T (ed) Ecological and socio-economic impacts of close-to-nature forestry and plantation forestry: A comparative analysis. European Forest Institute. pp 7-20.

Arseneau C, Chiu M (2003) Canada – A land of plantations? In: UNFF Intersessional Experts Meeting. Maximising the role of planted forests in sustainable forest management. New Zealand, 24-30 March.

Aubin I, Garbe CM, Colombo S, Drever CR, McKenney DW, Messier C, Pedlar J, Saner MA, Venier L, Wellstead AM, Winder R, Witten E, Sainte-Marie C (2011) Why we disagree about assisted migration: Ethical implications of a key debate regarding the future of Canada's forests. For Chron 87: 755-765. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc2011-092

Barua SK, Lehtonen P, Pahkasalo T (2014) Plantation vision: Potentials, challenges and policy options for global industrial forest plantation development. Int For Rev 16: 117-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1505/146554814811724801

Barrette M, Leblanc M, Thiffault N, Paquette A, Lavoie L, Bélanger L, Bujold F, Côté L, Lamoureux J, Schneider R, Tremblay JP, Côté S, Boucher Y, Deshaies ME (2014) Issues and solutions for intensive plantation silviculture in a context of ecosystem management. For Chron 90: 748-762. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc2014-147

Beaudoin A, Bernier PY, Guindon L, Villemaire P, Guo XJ, Stinson G, Bergeron T, Magnussen S, Hall RJ (2014) Mapping attributes of Canada's forests at moderate resolution through kNN and MODIS imagery. Can J For Res 44: 521-532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2013-0401

Beaulieu J, Rainville A, Daoust G, Bousquet J (2001) La diversité génétique des espèces arborescentes de la forêt boréale. Nat Can 125: 192-202.

Bell FW, Parton J, Stocker N, Joyce D, Reid D, Wester M, Stinson A, Kayahara G, Towill B (2008) Developing a silvicultural framework and definitions for use in forest management planning and practice. For Chron 84: 678-693. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc84678-5

Bergeron Y, Cyr D, Girardin MP, Carcaillet C (2010) Will climate change drive 21st century burn rates in Canadian boreal forest outside of its natural variability: collating global climate model experiments with sedimentary charcoal data. Int J Wildland Fire 19: 1127-1139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF09092

Bilodeau-Gauthier S, Paré D, Messier C, Bélanger N (2011) Juvenile growth of hybrid poplars on acidic boreal soil determined by environmental effects of soil preparation, vegetation control, and fertilization. For Ecol Manage 261: 620-629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.11.016

Blais R, Chiasson G (2005) L'écoumène forestier canadien : État, techniques et communautés -l'appropriation difficile du territoire. Revue canadienne des sciences régionales 28: 487-512.

Boulet B, Huot M (eds) (2013) Le guide sylvicole du Québec : Les fondements biologiques de la sylviculture. Les Publications du Québec, Québec.

Brandt JP, Flannigan MD, Maynard DG, Thompson ID, Volney WJA (2013) An introduction to Canada's boreal zone: ecosystem processes, health, sustainability, and environmental issues. Environ Rev 21:207-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/er-2013-0040

Brockerhoff EG, Jactel H, Parrotta J, Quine CP, Sayer J (2008) Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity? Biodivers Conserv 17:925-951. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-008-9380-x

CSA (Canadian Standards Association) (2013). Sustainable Forest Management. Forests standard, Forest Management Z809.

Carle J, Holmgren P (2008) Wood from planted forests: A global outlook 2005-2030. For Prod J 58: 6-18.

Carnus JM, Parrotta J, Brockerhoff E, Arbez M, Jactel H, Kremer A, Lamb D, O'Hara K, Walters B (2006) Planted forests and biodiversity. J For 104: 65-77.

Castonguay S (2006) Foresterie scientifique et reforestation : l'État et la production d'une « forêt à pâte » au Québec dans la première moitié du XXième siècle. Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française 60: 61-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.7202/014595ar

Chen F, Zheng H, Zhang K, Ouyanga Z, Lan J, Li H, Shi Q (2013) Changes in soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity following conversion from native Pinus massoniana plantations to exotic Eucalyptus plantations. For Ecol Manage 291: 65-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.11.016

Colak A, Rotherham I, Calikoglu M (2003) Combining "naturalness concepts" with close-to-nature silviculture. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt 122: 421-431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10342-003-0007-1

CCFM (Canadian Council of Forest Ministers) (2003) Définir l'aménagement forestier durable au Canada: Critères et indicateurs. http://scf.rncan.gc.ca/series/vue/95?lang=fr_CA. Accessed 15 January 2015.

CCFM (Canadian Council of Forest Ministers) (2006) Critères et indicateurs de l'aménagement forestier durable au Canada: Bilan national 2005. http://scf.rncan.gc.ca/series/vue/95?lang=fr_CA. Accessed 15 January 2015.

CCFM (Canadian Council of Forest Ministers) (2008) Mesurer nos progrès: Mise en œuvre de l'aménagement durable des forêts au Canada et à l'étranger.

Dancause A (2008) Le reboisement au Québec. Les Publications du Québec, Québec.

Dare ML, Schirmerm J, Vanclay F (2011) Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management? For Pol Econ 13: 328-337.

Dennison WC (2008) Environmental problem solving in coastal ecosystems: A paradigm shift to sustainability. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 77: 185-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2007.09.031

DesRochers A, van den Driessche R, Thomas BR (2006) NPK fertilization at planting of three hybrid poplar clones in the boreal region of Alberta. For Ecol Manage 232: 216-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.06.004

Dodet M, Collet C (2012) When should exotic forest plantation tree species be considered as an invasive threat and how should we treat them? Biol Invasions 14: 1765-1778. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-012-0202-4

Dupras J, Parcerisas L, Brenner J (2015) Using ecosystem services valuation to measure the economic impacts of land-use changes on the Spanish Mediterranean coast (El Maresme, 1850–2010). Regional Environmental Change.

Elfving BE, Ericsson T, Rosvall O (2001) The introduction of lodgepole pine for wood production in Sweden - a review. For Ecol Manage 141: 15-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00485-0

Elmendorf SC et al (2012) Plot-scale evidence of tundra vegetation change and links to recent summer warming. Nature Climate Change 2: 453-457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1465

Epanda A, Leblanc P (2008) Rapport de recherche sur l'acceptabilité sociale de la ligniculture. Chaire Desjardins en développement des petites collectivités. https://depot.erudit.org/id/003525dd. Accessed 10 May 2015

Fang Z, Bao W, Yan X, Liu X (2014) Understory structure and vascular plant diversity in naturally regenerated deciduous forests and spruce plantations on similar clear-cuts: Implications for forest regeneration strategy selection. Forests 5: 715-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/f5040715

FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) (2010) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010: Main report. FAO Forestry Papers. 2001-2010. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1757e/i1757e00.htm. Accessed 24 November 2014.

FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) (2015) Évaluation des ressources forestières mondiales 2015: Termes et définitions. http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra/2560/fr/. Accessed 6 February 2015.

Felton A, Boberg J, Björkman C, Widenfalk O (2013) Identifying and managing the ecological risks of using introduced tree species in Sweden's production forestry. For Ecol Manage 307: 165-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.06.059

Ford R, Williams K, Bishop I, Hickey J (2009) Public judgements of the social acceptability of silvicultural alternatives in Tasmanian wet eucalypt forests. Australian Forestry 72: 157-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00049158.2009.10676298

FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) (2004) Norme boréale nationale. https://ca.fsc.org/national-boreal-standard.203.htm. Accessed 20 January 2015.

FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) (2005) Forest stewardship council regional certification standards for British Columbia: Main Standards. https://ca.fsc.org/norme-de-c-b-.202.htm. Accessed 20 January 2015.

FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) (2008) Certification standards for best forestry practices in the Maritimes Region. https://ca.fsc.org/norme-des-maritimes.205.htm. Accessed 20 January 2015.

FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) (2010) Norme de certification FSC pour la région des Grands Lacs Saint-Laurent. https://ca.fsc.org/norme-prliminaire-grands-lacs-saint-laurent.204.htm. Accessed 20 January 2015.

FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) (2012) FSC's engagement with Plantations. https://ic.fsc.org/preview.fscs-engagement-with-plantations.a-1296.pdf. Accessed 15 October 2014.

Fortier J, Truax B, Gagnon D, Lambert F (2012) Hybrid poplar yields in Québec: Implications for a sustainable forest zoning management system. For Chron 88: 391-407. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc2012-075

Gauthier S, Bernier P, Kuuluvainen T, Shvidenko AZ, Schepaschenko DG (2015) Boreal forest health and global change. Science 349: 819-822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa9092

Gravel J, Meunier S (2013) Le gradient d'intensité de la sylviculture. In: Larouche C, Guillemette F, Raymond P, Saucier JP. Le guide sylvicole du Québec: Les concepts et l'application de la sylviculture. Les Publications du Québec, Québec. pp 33-41.

Guillemette T, DesRochers A (2008) Early growth and nutrition of hybrid poplars fertilized at planting in the boreal forest of western Quebec. For Ecol Manage 255: 2981-2989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.02.004

Groupe d'experts sur la sylviculture intensive de plantations (2013) La sylviculture intensive de plantations dans un contexte d'aménagement écosystémique – Rapport du groupe d'experts. M Barrette and M Leblanc (eds). https://www.mffp.gouv.qc.ca/publications/forets/amenagement/sylviculture-intensive-plantations.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2016.

Hansen AJ, McComb WC, Vega R, Raphael MG, Hunter M (1995) Bird habitat relationships in natural and managed forests in the west Cascades of Oregon. Ecol Applic 5:555-569. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1941966

Hartley MJ (2002) Rationale and methods for conserving biodiversity in plantation forests. For Ecol Manage 155:81-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00549-7

Hartmann H, Daoust G, Bigué B, Messier C (2010) Negative or positive effects of plantation and intensive forestry on biodiversity: A matter of scale and perspective. For Chron 86: 354-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc86354-3

Hébert F, Bachand M, Thiffault N, Paré D, Gagné P (2016) Recovery of plant community functional traits following severe soil perturbation in plantations: A case-study. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosys Serv Manage 12: 116-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2016.1146334

Hobbs RJ, Arico S, Aronson J, Baron JS, Bridgewater P, Cramer VA, Epstein PR, Ewel JJ, Klink CA, Lugo AE, Norton D, Ojima D, Richardson DM, Sanderson EW, Valladares F, Vilà M, Zamora R, Zobel M (2006) Novel ecosystems: Theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15: 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-822X.2006.00212.x

Hooper DU et al (2005) Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecol Monogr 75: 3-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/04-0922

Howe GT, Shindler B, Cashore B, Hanson E, Lach D, Armstrong W (2005) Public influences on plantation forestry. J For 103: 90-94.

Hunter ML, Jacobson GL, Webb T (1988) Paleoecology and the coarse-filter approach to maintaining biological diversity. Conserv Biol 2:375-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.1988.tb00202.x

Jactel H, Brockerhoff EG (2007) Tree diversity reduces herbivory by forest insects. Ecol Lett 10: 835- 848. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01073.x

Jetté JP, Vaillancourt MA, Leduc A, Gauthier S (2008) Aménagement forestier écosystémique : origines et fondements. In Gauthier S, Vaillancourt MA, Leduc A, De Grandpré L, Kneeshaw D, Morin H, Drapeau P, Bergeron Y (eds). Aménagement écosystémique en forêt boréale. Presses de l'Université du Québec, Québec. pp 13-40.

Johnston MH, Campagna M, Gray PA, Kope HH, Loo JA, Ogden AE, O'Neill GA, Price DT, Williamson TB (2009) Vulnérabilité des arbres du Canada aux changements climatiques et propositions de mesures visant leur adaptation : un aperçu destiné aux décideurs et aux intervenants du monde forestier. https://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/publications?id=30277. Accessed 2 March 2015.

Kjær ED, Lobo A, Myking T (2014) The role of exotic tree species in Nordic forestry. Scand J For Res 29: 323-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2014.926098

Kreyling J, Bittner T, Jaeschke A, Jentsch A, Steinbauer MJ, Thiel D, Beierkuhnlein C (2011) Assisted colonization: A question of focal units and recipient localities. Restor Ecol 19: 433-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00777.x

Kuhnke DH (1989) Statistiques sylvicoles canadiennes: résumé couvrant une période de 11 ans. Forêt Canada, Centre de foresterie du Nord. Rapport d'information. NOR-X-301F.

Kullman L (1998) Palaeoecological, biogeographical and palaeoclimatological implications of early Holocene immigration of Larix sibirica Ledeb into the Scandes Mountains, Sweden. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 7: 181-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2997373

Langor DW, Cameron EK, MacQuarrie CJK, McBeath A, McClay A, Peter B, Pybus M, Ramsfield T, Ryall K, Scarr T, Yemshanov D, DeMerchant I, Foottit R, Pohl GR (2014) Non-native species in Canada's boreal zone: diversity, impacts, and risk. Environ Rev 22: 372-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/er-2013-0083

Larchevêque M, Larocque GR, DesRochers A. Tremblay F, Gaussiran S, Boutin R, Brais S, Beaulieu J, Daoust G, Périnet P (2010) Juvenile productivity of five hybrid poplar clones and 20 genetically improved white and Norway spruces in boreal clay-belt of Quebec, Canada. For Chron 86: 225-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc86225-2

Larocque GR, DesRochers A, Larchevêque M, Tremblay F, Beaulieu J, Mosseler A, Major JE, Gaussiran S, Thomas BR, Sidders D, Périnet P, Kort J, Labrecque M, Savoie P, Masse S, Bouman OT, Kamelchuk D, Benomar L, Mamashita T, Gagné P (2013) Research on hybrid poplars and willow species for fast-growing tree plantations: Its importance for growth and yield, silviculture, policy-making and commercial applications. For Chron 89: 32-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc2013-009

Lindenmayer DB, Hobbs RJ, Likens GE, Krebs CJ, Banks SC (2011) Newly discovered landscape traps produce regime shifts in wet forests. Proc Nat Acad Sci 108:15887-15891. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1110245108

Lteif A, Whalen JK, Bradley RL, Camiré C (2007) Mixtures of papermill biosolids and pig slurry improve soil quality and growth of hybrid poplar. Soil Use Manage 23: 393-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2007.00103.x

MacDougall AS, McCann KS, Gellner G, Turkington R (2013) Diversity loss with persistent human disturbance increases vulnerability to ecosystem collapse. Nature 494: 86-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11869

Mårald E, Sandström C, Rist L, Rosvall O, Samuelsson L, Idenfors A (2015) Exploring the use of a dialogue process to tackle a complex and controversial issue in forest management. Scand J For Res 30: 749-756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2015.1065343

Maron JL, Vilà M (2001) When do herbivores affect plant invasion? Evidence for the natural enemies and biotic resistance hypotheses. Oïkos 95: 361-373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0706.2001.950301.x

McLachclan JS, Hellmann J, Schwartz MW (2007) A framework for debate of assisted migration in an era of climate change. Conserv Pol 21: 297-302.

Meirmans PG, Gros-Louis MC, Lamothe M, Perron M, Bousquet J, Isabel N (2014) Rates of spontaneous hybridization and hybrid recruitment in co-existing exotic and native mature larch populations. Tree Genet Genomes 10: 965-975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11295-014-0735-z

Messier C, Bigué B, Bernier L (2003) Using fast-growing plantations to promote forest ecosystem protection in Canada. Unasylva 54:59-63.

Messier C, Tittler R, Kneeshaw D, Gélinas N, Paquette A, Berninger K, Rheault H, Meek P, Beaulieu N (2009) TRIAD zoning in Quebec: Experiences and results after 5 years. For Chron 85: 885-896. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc85885-6

Miller JE, Miller DA (2016) Introduction: Ecological, biological, economic, and social issues associated with captive cervids. Wildl Soc Bull 40: 7-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wsb.639

Moffat K, Lacey J, Zhang A, Leipold S (2015) The social licence to operate: a critical review. Forestry http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpv044

Morandini R (1964) Genetics and improvement of exotic trees. Unasylva.18: 51-60.

Morris TL, Esler KJ, NiBarger NN, Jacobs SM, Cramer MD (2011) Ecophysiological traits associated with the competitive ability of invasive Australian acacias. Divers Distrib 17: 898-910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00802.x

Mulloy GA (1935) Exotic trees in Canada. For Chron 11: 3-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc11033-3

Myking T, Yakovlev I, Ersland GA (2011) Nuclear genetic markers indicate Danish origin of the Norwegian beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations established in 500-1,000 AD. Tree Genet Genomes 7: 587-596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11295-010-0358-y

Nelson AS, Saunders MR, Wagner RG, Weiskittel AR (2011) Early stand production of hybrid poplar and white spruce in mixed and monospecific plantations in eastern Maine. New For 43: 519- 534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-011-9296-2

O'Hehir JF, Nambiar EKS (2010) Productivity of three successive rotations of P. radiata plantations in South Australia over a century. For Ecol Manage 259: 1857-1869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.12.004

Paillé G (2012) Histoire forestière du Canada. Les Publications du Québec, Québec.

Pâquet J (2013) Les aspects visuels des traitements sylvicoles. In: Larouche C, Guillemette F, Raymond P, Saucier JP. Le guide sylvicole du Québec: Les concepts et l'application de la sylviculture. Les Publications du Québec, Québec.

Paquette A, Messier C (2010) The role of plantations in managing the world's forests in the Anthropocene. Front Ecol Environ 8: 27-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/080116

Paquette A, Messier C (2013) Managing tree plantations as complex adaptive systems. In: Messier C, Puettmann KJ, Coates KD (eds) Managing forests as complex adaptive systems: Concepts and examples. Routledge, London. pp 299-326.

Paritsis J, Aizen MA (2008) Effects of exotic conifer plantations on the biodiversity of understory plants, epigeal beetles and birds in Nothofagus dombeyi forests. For Ecol Manage 255: 1575-1583. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.11.015

Park A, Wilson E (2007) Beautiful Plantations: can intensive silviculture help Canada to fulfill ecological and timber production objectives? For Chron 83: 825-839.

Pedlar JH, McKenney DW, Beaulieu J, Colombo SJ, McLachlan JS, O'Neill GA (2011) The implementation of assisted migration in Canadian forests. For Chron 87: 766-777. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc2011-093

Pimentel D, Zuniga R, Morrison D (2005) Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecol Econ 52: 273-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.10.002

Price DT et al (2013) Anticipating the consequences of climate change for Canada's boreal forest ecosystems. Environ Rev 21: 322-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/er-2013-0042

Richardson DM (1998) Forestry trees as invasive aliens. Conserv Biol 12: 18-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1998.96392.x

Richardson DM, Pysek P, Rejmanek M, Barbour MG, Panetta DF, West CJ (2000) Naturalization and invasion of alien plants : Concepts and definitions. Divers Distrib 6: 93-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-4642.2000.00083.x

Roberge JM, Stenbacka F (2014) Assemblages of epigaeic beetles and understory vegetation differ between stands of an introduced pine and its native congener in boreal forest. For Ecol Manage 318: 239-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.01.026

Rompré G, Boucher Y, Bélanger L, Côté S, Robinson WD (2010) Conserving biodiversity in managed forest landscapes: The use of critical thresholds for habitat. For Chron 86: 589-596. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc86589-5

Rytter L, Stener LG (2005) Productivity and thinning effects in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) stands in southern Sweden. Forestry 78: 285-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpi026

Sansilvestri R, Frascaria-Lacoste N, Fernández-Manjarrés J (2016) One option, two countries, several strategies: subjacent mechanisms of assisted migration implementation in Canada and France. Restor Ecol (In press) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rec.12343

Sax DF (2002) Equal diversity in disparate species assemblages: a comparison of native and exotic woodlands in California. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 11:49-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1466-822X.2001.00262.x

Schierenbeck KA, Ellstrand NC (2009) Hybridization and the evolution of invasiveness in plants and other organisms. Biol Inv 11: 1093-1105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-008-9388-x

Sedjo RA (1999) The potential of high-yield plantation forestry for meeting timber needs. New For 17: 339-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006563420947

SFI (Sustainable Forestry Initiative) (2015) SFI 2015-2019 standards and rules. http://www.sfiprogram.org/sfi-standard/forest-management-standard/. Accessed 20 January 2015.

Swaffer BA, Holland KL (2015) Comparing ecophysiological traits and evapotranspiration of an invasive exotic, Pinus halepensis in native woodland overlying a karst aquifer. Ecohydrology 8: 230-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eco.1502

Thompson ID, Baker JA, Ter-Mikaelian M (2003) A review of the long-term effects of post-harvest silviculture on vertebrate wildlife, and predictive models, with an emphasis on boreal forests in Ontario, Canada. For Ecol 177: 441-469. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(02)00453-x

Tittler R, Messier C, Fall A (2012) Concentrating anthropogenic disturbance to balance ecological and economic values: applications to forest management. Ecol Appl 22: 1268-1277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/11-1680.1

Tullus A, Rytter L, Tullus T, Weih M, Tullus H (2012) Short-rotation forestry with hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) in Northern Europe. Scand J For Res 27: 10-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2011.628949

United Nations (1992) Report of the United Nations conference on environment and development. Annex III. Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June.

Waldron RM (1973) Direct seeding in Canada 1900-1972. Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forest Research Centre. Edmonton, AL.

Weetman GF (1982) The evolution and status of Canadian silviculture practice. For Chron 58: 74-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc58074-2

White T, Davis J, Gezan S, Hulcr J, Jokela E, Kirst M, Martin TA, Peter G, Powell G, Smith J (2013) Breeding for value in a changing world: past achievements and future prospects. New For 45: 301-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-013-9400-x

Wilshusen PR, Wallace RL (2009) Integrative problem solving: the policy sciences as a framework for conservation policy and planning. Pol Sci 42: 91-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11077-009-9092-4

Winter S, Fischer HS, Fischer A (2010) Relative quantitative reference approach for naturalness assessments of forests. For Ecol Manage 259: 1624-1632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.01.040

Woodley SJ, Johnson G, Freedmen B, Kirk DA (2006) Effects of timber harvesting and plantation development on cavity-nesting birds in New Brunswick. Can Field Nat 120: 298-306.

Wyatt S (2008) First Nations, forest lands, and "aboriginal forestry" in Canada: from exclusion to comanagement and beyond. Can J For Res 38: 171-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/X07-214

Wyatt S, Rousseau MH, Nadeau S, Thiffault N, Guay L (2011) Social concerns, risk and the acceptability of forest vegetation management alternatives: Insights for managers. For Chron 87: 274-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.5558/tfc2011-014

Zamorano-Elgueta C, Rey Benayas JM, Cayuela L, Hantson S, Armenteras D (2015) Native forest replacement by exotic plantations in southern Chile (1985–2011) and partial compensation by natural regeneration. For Ecol Manage 345: 10-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.02.025

Zobel BJ, Van Wyk G, Stahl P (1987) Growing exotic forest. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Published
2016-06-05
How to Cite
Salmón Rivera, B., Barrette, M., & Thiffault, N. (2016). Issues and perspectives on the use of exotic species in the sustainable management of Canadian forests. REFORESTA, 1(1), 261-280. https://doi.org/10.21750/REFOR.1.13.13