A synthesis of results on wastes as potting media substitutes for the production of native plant species
AbstractThe three major functions of a potting medium for plant production is to provide support, to retain water and nutrients, and to allow oxygen diffusion to the roots. A potting medium should meet the requirements of practical plant production such as: to be available and ready at all times, easy to handle, lightweight and to produce uniform plant growth. Constituents such as natural soil, peat, sand, perlite and vermiculite are commonly used as substrates for container plant production. Nevertheless, these materials might be fully or partially replaced by various organic or inorganic wastes, thus achieving environmental and economic benefits. This study presents a synthesis of results extracted from many trials on waste materials as potting media substitutes for the seedlings production of the following native plant species: Pinus halepensis, Quercus ilex, Quercus macropleis and Ceratonia siliqua. The studied waste materials were either organic or inorganic components including: spoils of peridotite, raw rice hulls, coconut fiber and kenaf (the ground stem of the plant H. cannabinus L). The experimental potting media tested were: peat:perlite (3:1), a common medium used for seedling production, peat:spoils of peridotite (3:1), peat:rice hulls (3:1), peat:rice hulls (1:1), peat:coconut fiber (1:1), kenaf (100%) and kenaf:peat:rice hulls (3:1:1). The main physical (water retention characteristics, bulk density, particle density, total porosity) and chemical (N, K, Ca, Mg, soluble P, exchangeable cations, pH and loss on ignition) properties of each potting medium were measured. For each plant species the following seedling quality parameters were assessed: morphological characteristics (shoot height, root collar diameter), shoot and root biomass, Dicksonâ€™s quality index and shoot and root nutrient concentrations. Then seedlings were planted in the field and their survival and growth was monitored. The feasibility of replacing peat or perlite with various waste materials as well as their effect on seedling quality and field performance are discussed.
Abad M, Noguera P, Bures S (2001) National inventory of organic wastes for use as growing media for ornamental potted plant production: a case study in Spain. Bioresource Technology 77: 197â€“200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(00)00152-8
Alifragis D, Papamichos N (1995) Description-Sampling-Laboratory Analysis of Forest Soils and Plant Tissues. Dedousi Publishers, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Alifragis D, Grigoriou A, Passialis C, Voulgaridis E (1997) Kenaf as a secondary crop in sandy soils under Mediterranean climate conditions. In: Proc. 3rd International Conference on Development of Forestry and Wood Science/Technology. Serbia/Yugoslavia, Belgrade, 29th Septemberâ€“3rd October, pp 1â€“8.
Bragg N, Brocklehurst TF, Smith AC, Bhat M, Waldron KW (2006) The development of sustainable growing media components from composted specific bio-waste streams. International Plant Propagators' Society Combined Proceedings 55: 256-258.
Burdett AN, Simpson DG, Thompson CF (1983) Root development and plantation establishment success. Plant Soil 71: 103â€“110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02182645
Di Benedetto A, Petracchi JC, Marcella G, Montaron P, Chavez W (2006) Evaluation of alternative substrates for bedding plants. International Journal of Agricultural Research 1(6): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijar.2006.545.554
Dueitt S, Newman SE (1994) Physical analysis of fresh and aged rice hulls used as a peat moss substitute in greenhouse media. In: Proceedings of SNA Research Conference, vol. 39, pp 81â€“85.
Dueitt S, Howell J, Newman SE (1993) Rice hulls as a vermiculite substitute in peat-based media for growing greenhouse bedding plants. In: Proceedings of SNA Research Conference, vol. 38, Section 2: container grown plant production, pp 62â€“64.
Gounaris N, Ganatsas P, Tsakaldimi M, Zagas T, Tsitsoni T, Hatzistathis A (2000) Effect of the production technique on the survival and growth of seedlings of two oak species. Scientific Annals of the Dept. of Forestry and Natural Environment, A.U.Th, vol. 40/1, pp 193-205 (in Greek).
Guerin V, Lemaire F, Marfa O, Caceres R, Giuffrida F (2001) Growth of Vivurnum tinus in peat-based and peat-substitute growing media. Scientia Horticulturae 89: 129-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(00)00228-4
Hartmann HT, Kester DE, Davies FT (1997) Plant Propagation, Principles and Practices. Prentice-Hall International, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Heiskanen J (1993) Favourable water and aeration conditions for growth media used in containerized tree seedling production: a review. Scand. J. Forest. Res. 8: 337â€“358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827589309382782
Heiskanen J (1995a) Compaction of growth media based on Sphagnum peat during one-year culturing of container seedlings. Suosera 46 (3): 63â€“68.
Heiskanen, J (1995b) Physical properties of two-component growth media based on Sphagnum peat and their implications for plant available water and aeration. Plant Soil 172: 45â€“54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00020858
Handreck KA (1993) Properties of coir dust, and its use in the formulation of soilless potting media. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 24: 349â€“363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00103629309368804
Handreck K, Black N (2002) Growing Media for Ornamental Plants and Turf. 3rd edn. University of New South Wales Press Ltd. Sydney, Australia. ISBN 0 86840 7968.
Jacobs DF, Landis TD, Luna T (2009) Growing media. In: Dumroese RK, Luna T, Landis TD, (eds), Nursery manual for native plants: A guide for tribal nurseries - Volume 1: Nursery management. Agriculture Handbook 730. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.
Kuczmarski D (1994) Amending the cost of media. Amer. Nurseryman 179 (10): 47â€“52.
Landis TD (1985) Mineral nutrition as an index of seedling quality. In: Duryea ML (ed), Evaluating Seedling Quality: Principles, Procedures and Predictive Abilities of Major Tests. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis (Chapter 4).
Landis TD, Tinus RW, McDonald SE, Barnett JP (1990) Containers and growing media.The Container Tree Nursery Manual Agriculture Handbook 674 (vol. 2). USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.
Landis TD, Tinus RW, McDonald SE, Barnett JP (1995) Nursery planning, development and management. The Container Tree Nursery Manual Agriculture Handbook 674 (vol. 1). USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (Chapter 1).
Landis TD, Morgan N (2009) Growing media alternatives for forest and native plant nurseries. In: Dumroese RK, Riley LE (eds) National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associationsâ€”2008. Proc. RMRS-P-58. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 26â€“31. Online: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_p058.html.
Lennox TL, Lumis GP (1987) Evaluation of physical properties of several growing media for use in aerial seedling containers. Can. J. For. Res. 17: 165-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x87-029
Linderman RG, Davis EA (2003) Arbuscular mycorrhiza and growth responses of several ornamental plants grown in soilless peat-based medium amended with coconut dust (coir). HortTechnology 13(3): 482-487.
Lopez-Galarza S, Maroto JV, Cano E, San Bautista A, Pascual B (2002) Enhancing root systems of waiting-bed strawberry plants grown on substrates. J. Hort.Sci. Biotech. 77:58-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2002.11511457
Martinez H (1995) Coir could quickly gain share in growing media market. Greenhouse Management and Production 14: 69-73.
Mattsson A (1996) Predicting Weld performance using seedling quality assessment. New Forests 13: 227â€“252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006590409595
Meerow AW (1994) Growth of two subtropical ornamentals using coir (coconut mesocarp pith) as a peat substitute. HortScience 29: 1484-1486.
Noguera P, Abad M, Pucahdes R, Noguera V, Macquieira A, Martinez J (1997) Physical and chemical properties of coir waste and their relation to plant growth. Acta Horticulturae 450: 365â€“369. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1997.450.45
Offord CA, Muir S, Tyler JL (1998) Growth of selected Australian plants in soilliess media using coir as a substitute for peat. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 38: 879â€“887. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA98059
Reinikainen O (1993) Choice of growing media for pot plants. Acta Horticulturae 342: 357â€“360. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1993.342.43
Ritchie GA (1984) Assessing seedling quality. In: Duryea ML and Landis TD (eds) Forest Nursery Manual: Production of Bareroot Seedlings. Martinus Nijhoff/ Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague/Boston/Lancaster, for Forest Research laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, pp 243-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6110-4_23
Rose R, Carlson WC, Morgan P (1990) The target seedling concept. In: Proceedings of Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Associations, Roseburg, 13â€“17 August, Oregon. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-200, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Colorado, pp 1â€“8.
Rose R, Haase DL (2000) The use of coir as a containerized growing medium for Douglas-fir seedlings. Native Plants Journal 1:107-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.3368/npj.1.2.107
Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1988) Statistical Methods. The Iowa State University Press.
Spectrum Analytic Inc. (2015) Magnesium Basics. Online: http://www.spectrumanalytic.com/ support/library/ff/Mg_Basics.htm.
Stamps RH, Evans MR (1999) Growth of Dracaena marginata and Spathiphyllum 'Petite' in Sphagnum Peat- and Coconut Coir Dust-based Growing Media. J. Environ. Hort. 17(1): 49-52.
Sutton RF (1980) Planting stock quality, root growth capacity and Weld performance of three boreal conifers. New Zeal. J. For. Sci. 10: 54â€“71.
Tsakaldimi M (2001) Research on the production and quality assessment of the container-planting stock used in the afforestations. Dissertation, Department of Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
Tsakaldimi M (2004) Use of inorganic and organic solid wastes for container-seedlings production. Proceedings of the International Conference 'Protection and Restoration of the Environment VII', 28 June-1 July 2004, Mykonos, Greece.
Tsakaldimi M (2006) Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) core and rice hulls as components of container media for growing Pinus halepensis M. seedlings. Bioresource Technology 97: 1631-1639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.07.027
Tsakaldimi M, Ganatsas P, Jacobs DF (2013) Prediction of planted seedling survival of five Mediterranean species based on initial seedling morphology. New Forests 44: 327-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-012-9339-3
Wang YT (1994) Using ground kenaf stem core as a major component of container media. J. Amer. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 119 (5): 931â€“935.
Webber CL, Whitworth J, Dole J (1999) Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) core as a containerized growth medium component. Ind. Crops Prod. 10: 97-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6690(99)00014-X
Copyright (c) 2016 Marianthi Tsakaldimi, Petros Ganatsas
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution LicenseÂ CCBYÂ that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).