Restoration of degraded forest reserves in Ghana

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Reginald T. Guuroh
Ernest G. Foli
Shalom D. Addo-Danso
John Stanturf
Michael Kleine
Janice Burns


Deforestation in Ghana has led to a forest loss of almost 20% from 9,924,000 ha in 1990 to 7,986,000 ha today. To restore degraded lands, Forest Landscape Restoration has become a critical approach globally. This study was conducted in Ghana focusing on the examples of two forest landscape restoration projects in the Pamu Berekum Forest Reserve: 10-year-old mixed-stands of two to four native tree species and an exotic species stands, including Triplochiton scleroxylon, Terminalia ivorensis, Ceiba pentandra, Nauclea diderrichii and Cedrela odorata at Pamu Berekum 1 and 4-year-old Tectona grandis and 2-year-old Gmelina arborea monoculture stands at Pamu Berekum 2. Estimates of productivity in the restored forests are described, as well as the effects of the restoration on provision of ecosystem service and benefits obtained by local communities. Stand productivity was assessed as mean annual increment of diameter and height, biomass production, and standing volume. For ecosystem services, carbon stocks were calculated for the restored forests; other ecological benefits, as well as financial benefits, were obtained through interviews with fringe communities. The results indicate that FLR can be implemented successfully using different models provided that local communities are involved during the planning and implementation of interventions. When all stands were projected to 10 years, results show higher productivity in T. grandis (331.77 m3 ha-1) and G. arborea stands (1,785.99 m3ha-1) compared to mixed stand (160.41 m3 ha-1). The Gmelina arborea stand was more productive and had higher carbon stocks (1,350.10 Mg ha-1) relative to the T. grandis stand (159.89 Mg ha-1). Both restoration projects were found to deliver important benefits and ecosystem services at the local and national levels, including direct and indirect benefits. The results provide an example for forest/environmental managers on how FLR might be implemented to create multiple benefits at different levels from local communities to the national level. Thus, these results may be useful for guiding successful restoration activities within the context of the ongoing global Forest Landscape Restoration efforts.


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Guuroh, Reginald T., Ernest G. Foli, Shalom D. Addo-Danso, John Stanturf, Michael Kleine, and Janice Burns. “Restoration of Degraded Forest Reserves in Ghana”. REFORESTA, no. 12 (December 30, 2021): 35-55. Accessed October 5, 2022.


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