Questions about toppling of pine seedlings Toppling of pine

Main Article Content

David B. South

Abstract

When soil is moist and wind is at a gale force, the term used to describe blow down of old trees is windthrow. In contrast, toppling is a term used when planted pines lean more than 15° during the first decade after transplanting. Pines tend to topple more than other conifers and fast-growing species topple more than slow growing genotypes. Large areas of pine plantations have toppled before age 8 years. This paper describes some toppling events that have occurred in 18 countries and includes 16 questions about toppling.

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How to Cite
South, David B. “Questions about Toppling of Pine Seedlings: Toppling of Pine”. REFORESTA, no. 14 (December 29, 2022): 63-106. Accessed February 4, 2023. https://journal.reforestationchallenges.org/index.php/REFOR/article/view/160.
Section
Review articles
Author Biography

David B. South, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, AL

Emeritus Professor   https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3902-3950

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