Questions about toppling of pine seedlings: Toppling of pine

Questions about toppling of pine seedlings

Toppling of pine


  • David B. South School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, AL



Windthrow, Container, Bareroot, Root deformation, Taproot


When soil is moist and wind is at a gale force, the term used to describe blow down of old trees is windthrow. In contrast, toppling is a term used when planted pines lean more than 15° during the first decade after transplanting. Pines tend to topple more than other conifers and fast-growing species topple more than slow growing genotypes. Large areas of pine plantations have toppled before age 8 years. This paper describes some toppling events that have occurred in 18 countries and includes 16 questions about toppling.


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Author Biography

David B. South, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, AL

Emeritus Professor


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How to Cite

South, David B. “Questions about Toppling of Pine Seedlings: Toppling of Pine”. REFORESTA, no. 14 (December 29, 2022): 63–106. Accessed March 1, 2024.



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