Seed germination of Crataegus monogyna – a species with a stony endocarp

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Abdenour Kheloufi
Lahouaria Mounia Mansouri
Cécile Vanbellinghen


The present work demonstrates the effects of moist cold stratification on seed dormancy breaking in Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We also examined the fruit and seed morphology. Mature and ripe fruits were collected, the pulp removed and the seeds (stones) left in the sun to dry for three days. Four temperature regimes viz. 4°C, 6.5°C (natural conditions where the fruits were harvested), 10°C and 20°C were used for stimulating seed germination under total darkness. For each treatment, there were four replicates with 50 seeds incubated in a plastic container between two layers of moist sand at 15%. At the end of the experiment, non-germinating seeds were tested for viability using Tetrazolium chloride (TZ).  After 4 months, the final germination (FGP) was expressed as a percentage of the total number of seeds in each treatment. The fruits of Hawthorn were 14.9 ± 0.73 mm long and 15.1 ± 0.84 mm in diameter and weigh 2.05 ± 0.28 g. The seeds were 8.29 ± 0.43 mm long and 6.75 ± 0.39 mm in diameter and weigh (0.25 ± 0.04) g. The thousand-fruit weight was 2,000 g and of the thousand-seeds weight was 280 g. The statistical analysis indicated significant effect (p < 0.0001) of treatment on seed germination. Dormancy in this species was broken most effectively by cold stratification at 4°C and under natural conditions with 76% and 67.5% of FGP, respectively. Most of the nongerminated seeds of C. monogyna were viable (dormant) as judged by TZ.


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How to Cite
Kheloufi, Abdenour, Lahouaria Mounia Mansouri, and Cécile Vanbellinghen. “Seed Germination of Crataegus Monogyna – a Species With a Stony Endocarp”. REFORESTA0, no. 7 (June 28, 2019): 73-80. Accessed September 24, 2023.
Author Biography

Abdenour Kheloufi, Department of Ecology and Environment, University of Batna2, Batna, Algeria

Department of Ecology and Environment

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